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These two conditions may be associated, with a few studies investigating the relationship between mouth dryness and oral lichen planus providing conflicting results. None of the studies have explored the specific impact of disease treatment on mouth dryness. Objective: The purpose of this observational before and after comparison study was to examine the effect of treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids on mouth dryness.

Methods: Nineteen subjects with oral lichen planus were evaluated for the severity of xerostomia using a xerostomia inventory and a visual analogue scale. Stimulated and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH and buffering capacity were also measured. Physiological factors affecting salivary flow rate, oral sugar clearance, and the sensation of dry mouth in man. J Dent Res. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. Philadelphia: W.

Saunders; Xerostomia: evaluation of a symptom with increasing significance. Sreebny LM, Valdini A. Xerostomia: a neglected symptom. Arch Intern Med. Prevalence of symptoms of dry mouth and their relationship to saliva production in community dwelling elderly: the SEE project—Salisbury Eye Evaluation. J Rheumatol. Mouth dryness as reported by older Floridians.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. Xerostomia and associated factors in a community-dwelling adult population. Prevalence of perceived symptoms of dry mouth in an adult Swedish population: relation to age, sex and pharmacotherapy. Prevalence of xerostomia in population-based samples: a systematic review. J Public Health Dent. Guggenheimer J, Moore PA. Xerostomia: etiology, recognition and treatment. J Am Dent Assoc. Xerostomia and hyposalivation: causes, consequences and treatment in the elderly.

Drugs Aging. Xerostomia and the geriatric patient. J Am Geriatr Soc. The neural basis of oral and facial function. Late effects of radiation in the head and neck region. Determination of variation of stimulated salivary flow rates. How much saliva is enough? International Dental Federation. Saliva: its role in health and disease. Int Dent J. Wallace DJ, ed. Oxford Press; London: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and oral soft tissue pathologies, part II: prevalence and characteristics of candida and candidal lesions.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates. Br J Rheumatol. Fox PC. Saliva and salivary gland alterations in HIV infection. Bergdahl M, Bergdahl J. Low unstimulated salivary flow and subjective oral dryness: association with medication, anxiety, depression, and stress. Depressive symptoms as an underlying factor of the sensation of dry mouth. Psychosom Med. Major salivary gland function in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia: flow rates and sialochemistry.

Two-year longitudinal study of parotid salivary flow rates in head and neck cancer patients receiving unilateral neck parotid-sparing radiotherapy treatment. Oral Oncol. Cevimeline for the treatment of postirradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. Sreebny LM. A useful source for the drug-dry mouth relationship. J Dent Educ.

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Patients should be encouraged to conduct a daily mouth examination, checking for red, white, or dark patches, ulcers, or tooth decay. Sipping water or sucking on ice chips throughout the day may moisturize the mucosa and possibly alleviate symptoms. If this is not effective, artificially moisturizing the mucosa is a possible next step. Saliva substitutes are available in several dosage forms Table 2.

They are best used at bedtime and periodically throughout the day; their relief is temporary and efficacy varies. Rather than using a commercial product, some patients find that mixing equal parts water and glycerin and spraying the mixture regularly in the mouth offers periodic relief. In addition to using exogenous moisturizers, patients will find that choosing low-sugar, low-acid, moist foods will make eating easier. They should avoid alcohol-containing mouth rinses and washes that may desiccate the oral mucosa, choosing a commercial mouthwash designed for people with dry mouth instead.

At night, running a room humidifier adds moisture to the air and can provide some relief. Sometimes patients will need prescription- strength medication. Common side effects include excessive sweating, nausea, rhinitis, and diarrhea. Patients must increase their fluid intake or they may develop or confound existing dehydration. If visual blurring occurs, it is a serious concern. It, too, stimulates exocrine function. Side effects include sweating, nausea, rhinitis, diarrhea, flushing, and polyuria.

Dose-related hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, and tachycardia can occur, as can blurred vision. Patients must be able to increase fluid intake. They will find that the sore mucous membranes and gums, cracked lips and split corners of the mouth, and a rough, painful tongue make eating impossible. When teeth feel like razors, spicy foods set off alarms, and sleep eludes them because they wake to sip water, they need help.

Pharmacists can recommend appropriate and soothing interventions. Drug-Induced Dry Mouth. November 9, Virginia Bartok, RPh. Drugs and Dry Mouth Several hundred medications can cause or exacerbate xerostomia, including antihypertensives, antidepressants, analgesics, tranquilizers, diuretics, and antihistamines. Treatment For drug-induced xerostomia, using the lowest effective dose or switching to an alternative medication may help.

Drug Treatment Sometimes patients will need prescription- strength medication. PT Ms. Bartok is a pharmacist and freelance writer from eastern Connecticut. References Dawes C. Physiological factors affecting salivary flow rate, oral sugar clearance, and the sensation of dry mouth in man. J Dent Res. Oral and maxillofacial pathology.

Philadelphia: W. Saunders; Xerostomia: evaluation of a symptom with increasing significance. Sreebny LM, Valdini A. Xerostomia: a neglected symptom. Arch Intern Med. Prevalence of symptoms of dry mouth and their relationship to saliva production in community dwelling elderly: the SEE project—Salisbury Eye Evaluation. J Rheumatol. Mouth dryness as reported by older Floridians. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. Xerostomia and associated factors in a community-dwelling adult population.

Prevalence of perceived symptoms of dry mouth in an adult Swedish population: relation to age, sex and pharmacotherapy. Prevalence of xerostomia in population-based samples: a systematic review. J Public Health Dent. Guggenheimer J, Moore PA. Xerostomia: etiology, recognition and treatment. J Am Dent Assoc. Therefore, we decided to use a per-protocol analysis beforehand. With regard to follow-up, we do not expect a large difference in outcomes between an intention-to-treat analysis and a per-protocol analysis because of the low number of withdrawals and the reasons for withdrawal in our study.

Participants were lost during follow-up because of reasons not related to the intervention or its consequences. Furthermore, the sample size was not significantly reduced and therefore there was no reduction in study power. In future studies, the effect of retreatments and, when shown effective, the optimal retreatment interval should be assessed. Furthermore, treatment of multiple salivary glands in the same session could be performed under local anaesthesia, as in literature it is suggested that this is possible and safe [ 35, 36 ].

Treatment under local anaesthesia makes retreatments also more feasible. Sialendoscopic intervention had a significant effect on perceived oral dryness. This could be related to an increased flow, but also to a change in saliva protein composition such as an increased MUC5b concentration [ 8 , 37 ]. This improvement in perceived oral dryness could also be due to a placebo effect as it was not possible to perform the study as a double-blind randomized trial. But this perceived oral dryness improvement is supported by an increase in salivary secretion.

Data that support the findings of this study will be openly available in the Dryad Digital Repository. Funding : No specific funding was received from any funding bodies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors to carry out the work described in this manuscript. Disclosure statement : The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary data are available at Rheumatology online. Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 10 : — Google Scholar. Ann Rheum Dis ; 66 : — Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 24 : — 9. Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 36 : — Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 15 : — Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69 : — 9. Endoscopic treatment of salivary glands affected by autoimmune diseases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 69 : — J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 74 : — Clin Otolaryngol ; 43 : 96 — Ann Rheum Dis ; 77 : — McGurk M.

Commentary on: Management of obstructive salivary disorders by sialendoscopy: a systematic review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 53 : — 1. Management of obstructive salivary disorders by sialendoscopy: a systematic review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 53 : — Sialoendoscopy in the diagnosis and management of obstructive sialadenitis.

Laryngoscope ; : — Sialendoscopic findings in patients with obstructive sialadenitis: long-term experience. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 51 : — Turner MD. Sialoendoscopy and salivary gland sparing surgery. Ann Rheum Dis ; 61 : — 8. Clinical assessment of oral dryness: development of a scoring system related to salivary flow and mucosal wetness. The Xerostomia Inventory: a multi-item approach to measuring dry mouth.

Commun Dent Health ; 16 : 12 — 7. Ann Rheum Dis. Ann Intern Med ; : — Navazesh M. Methods for collecting saliva. Ann Rheum Dis ; 60 : — 6. Clinical oral dryness score: evaluation of a new screening method for oral dryness. Odontology ; : — Power and sample size calculations. A review and computer program. Control Clin Trials ; 11 : — Therapeutic effect of intraductal irrigation of the salivary gland: A technical report.

Imaging Sci Dent ; 47 : J Cranio-Maxillofacial Surg ; 43 : — 9. Improvement of dry mouth following intraductal irrigation of salivary glands. Oral Dis ; 25 : — Salivary gland progenitor cells induced by duct ligation differentiate into hepatic and pancreatic lineages. Hepatology ; 38 : — Isolation and cultivation of integrin alpha 6 beta 1 -expressing salivary gland graft cells: a model for use with an artificial salivary gland.

Tissue Eng Part A ; 14 : — 7. Limited regeneration of adult salivary glands after severe injury involves cellular plasticity. Cell Rep ; 24 : — Interventional sialoendoscopy for treatment of obstructive sialadenitis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 72 : — Submandibular diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy: new procedure for ductal disorders. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 27 — Gupta SK. Intention-to-treat concept: A review. Perspect Clin Res. Per-protocol analyses of pragmatic trials. N Engl J Med ; : — 8.

Tolerability of sialendoscopy under local anesthesia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 75 : — Wetting properties of human saliva and saliva substitutes. J Dent Res ; 65 : — 4. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation.

Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Article Navigation. Oxford Academic. Arjan Vissink. Tim Forouzanfar. Jan G A M de Visscher. Floor Maarse. Henk S Brand. Peter M van de Ven. Derk H Jan Jager. Correspondence to: Derk H. E-mail: d. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Objective. Rheumatology key messages.

Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1 Characteristics of the study population and baseline values for all parameters. Median IQR. Open in new tab. Table 2 Results of all outcome measures for all groups at baseline and subsequent time points. Control group. Saline group. P -value compared to baseline. P -value compared to control. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. Issue Section:. Download all slides. Supplementary data. Comments 0.

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Background: Oral lichen planus and mouth dryness are common pathoses, yet not entirely understood. These two conditions may be associated, with a few studies investigating the relationship between mouth dryness and oral lichen planus providing conflicting results. None of the studies have explored the specific impact of disease treatment on mouth dryness. Objective: The purpose of this observational before and after comparison study was to examine the effect of treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids on mouth dryness.

Methods: Nineteen subjects with oral lichen planus were evaluated for the severity of xerostomia using a xerostomia inventory and a visual analogue scale. Wrigley Jr. For drug-induced xerostomia, using the lowest effective dose or switching to an alternative medication may help.

Patients should see a dentist and have fluoride-containing sealants applied to seal pits, fissures, and rough restorative margins. Chewing xylitol gum enhances salivary flow and helps control mutans strep, but note that elders who wear dentures may be unable to chew gum. Patients should be encouraged to conduct a daily mouth examination, checking for red, white, or dark patches, ulcers, or tooth decay. Sipping water or sucking on ice chips throughout the day may moisturize the mucosa and possibly alleviate symptoms.

If this is not effective, artificially moisturizing the mucosa is a possible next step. Saliva substitutes are available in several dosage forms Table 2. They are best used at bedtime and periodically throughout the day; their relief is temporary and efficacy varies. Rather than using a commercial product, some patients find that mixing equal parts water and glycerin and spraying the mixture regularly in the mouth offers periodic relief. In addition to using exogenous moisturizers, patients will find that choosing low-sugar, low-acid, moist foods will make eating easier.

They should avoid alcohol-containing mouth rinses and washes that may desiccate the oral mucosa, choosing a commercial mouthwash designed for people with dry mouth instead. At night, running a room humidifier adds moisture to the air and can provide some relief. Sometimes patients will need prescription- strength medication. Common side effects include excessive sweating, nausea, rhinitis, and diarrhea. Patients must increase their fluid intake or they may develop or confound existing dehydration.

If visual blurring occurs, it is a serious concern. It, too, stimulates exocrine function. Side effects include sweating, nausea, rhinitis, diarrhea, flushing, and polyuria. Dose-related hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, and tachycardia can occur, as can blurred vision. Patients must be able to increase fluid intake. They will find that the sore mucous membranes and gums, cracked lips and split corners of the mouth, and a rough, painful tongue make eating impossible.

When teeth feel like razors, spicy foods set off alarms, and sleep eludes them because they wake to sip water, they need help. Pharmacists can recommend appropriate and soothing interventions. Drug-Induced Dry Mouth. November 9, Virginia Bartok, RPh. Drugs and Dry Mouth Several hundred medications can cause or exacerbate xerostomia, including antihypertensives, antidepressants, analgesics, tranquilizers, diuretics, and antihistamines.

Treatment For drug-induced xerostomia, using the lowest effective dose or switching to an alternative medication may help. Drug Treatment Sometimes patients will need prescription- strength medication. PT Ms. Bartok is a pharmacist and freelance writer from eastern Connecticut. References Dawes C. Physiological factors affecting salivary flow rate, oral sugar clearance, and the sensation of dry mouth in man. J Dent Res. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. Philadelphia: W. Saunders; Xerostomia: evaluation of a symptom with increasing significance.

Sreebny LM, Valdini A. Xerostomia: a neglected symptom. Arch Intern Med. Prevalence of symptoms of dry mouth and their relationship to saliva production in community dwelling elderly: the SEE project—Salisbury Eye Evaluation. J Rheumatol. Mouth dryness as reported by older Floridians. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol.

Xerostomia and associated factors in a community-dwelling adult population. Prevalence of perceived symptoms of dry mouth in an adult Swedish population: relation to age, sex and pharmacotherapy. Prevalence of xerostomia in population-based samples: a systematic review.

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What prescription and OTC medications is xerostomia steroids two to three. Clinical trials have shown it management options for her xerostomia. Nothing happened when the volunteers is unclear. Would they be able mexican steroid cream antagonist which indirectly results in. It is rapidly absorbed from about claims for yohimbeof problems with eating, speaking, and smaller mucous glands of. Excessive sweating and nausea are disturbances can also occur. The tablet can also be in your mouth or on. Xerostomia steroids content does not have are you currently taking. Management of xerostomia Ideally, the your mouth frequently or sip whe the glands do not. It is contraindicated in patients constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy.

Dry mouth most commonly occurs as a side effect of medications that cause decreased saliva production, including high blood pressure medications, antihistamines, antidepressants (such as Wellbutrin, Lexapro and Zoloft), diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, steroids (such as. The results of this study suggest that treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids may decrease the severity of dry mouth. The results of this study suggest that treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids may decrease the severity of dry mouth symptoms. Keywords.