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An indicative example of the situation is the very low production of fruits during fruiting season in observed by Mancuso et al. Tomovic et al. Concerning the cytology of the genus, Fritillaria has been studied for many years due to the interest of its large chromosomes and vast genome size Darlington , , Frankel Indeed, 1C values DNA content of the unreplicated haploid chromosome complement in Fritillaria are among the largest reported for all angiosperms Bennett and Smith , Sharma and Raina However, the presence and the morphology of satellited chromosomes vary among the species or even among populations of the same taxon Runemark , Bentzer et al.

In addition, secondary constrictions and supernumerary B-chromosomes are observed very often La Cour b , c , Kamari a , a , b , Zaharof , , Kamari and Phitos As a result, that type of differentiations is always emphasized and specific chromosome pairs are studied as markers, in order to spot the differences among the generally stable and similar karyotypes Kamari b , Zaharof , Kamari and Phitos , Recently many questions have arisen, regarding the classification and phylogeny of the genus, especially for the species appearing in Greece.

Even though classical cytotaxonomic studies of the genus in Greece have already been published Kamari a , b , a , b , , Zaharof , , Kamari and Phitos , , neither karyomorphometric analysis, nor statistical evaluation of the cytological results, have ever been given so far.

In the present study, an attempt for further karyomorphometric analysis of chromosome features has been made, concerning the two members of Fritillaria montana group. Origin, chromosome numbers 2n and voucher number of Fritillaria material. Chromosome terminology follows Levan et al. For each taxon there is a presentation of the karyotype formula, maximum and minimum length of the chromosomes, total and average chromosome length and total haploid length of the chromosome set, along with their standard deviation.

Additionally the coefficient of variation of centromeric index CV CI measuring the centromere position heterogeneity is estimated following Paszko and Peruzzi and Altinordu When marker chromosomes are observed metacentric, submetacentric, SAT-chromosomes and secondary constrictions r-index, R-length, Centromeric index and Arm difference ratio are also given. Photomicrograph of mitotic metaphase plate of Fritillaria montana from Mt. Karyogram of Fritillaria montana from Mt.

Greece: Macedonia: Nomos Kozanis : mons Vourinos, in declivibus orientalibus cacuminis, alt. Dudley, D. Phitos, D. Tzanoudakis, Gr. Kato Olympos, Livadaki, north of Kallipefki, alt. Samaropoulou, I. Kato Olympos, Livadaki, alt. Tamvakas UPA. Secondary constrictions are also observed to the rest of the metacetric chromosomes, however, they are not always visible. For this reason, the other three metacentric chromosome pairs cannot be characterized as markers.

The chromosome size ranges between Up to three B-chromosomes were found, all of them acrocentric st in the studied material. Studied species with karyomorphometric indices. Greece: Macedonia: Nomos Florinas : Montes Triklarion, in declivibus boreo-occidentalibus cacuminis Boutsi, in apertis saxosis calc.

Kamari UPA ; Mt. Boutsi, alpine meadow, calcareous substrate, alt. The triploid population previously reported for the first time by Kamari a , is now further examined. Even though secondary constrictions were observed again, their number and position varies in several plates, making the distinction of marker chromosomes very difficult. It is noteworthy that a diploid individual was found for the first time at the studied triploid population. The secondary constrictions were also unclear as in the triploid individuals.

Photomicrograph of mitotic metaphase plate of Fritillaria epirotica from Mt. Karyogram of Fritillaria epirotica from Mt. Vasilitsa, alt. Kofinas s. Smolikas, alt. SF97, ACA. Thessalia: Nomos Trikalon : Ep. Kalampakas, Mt. Chasia Kratsovo , stony slopes close to a forest road, c. Phitos, G. Constantinidis s. Chasia Mt. Kratsovon , c. However, in most metaphase plates, three of them are usually visible.

Bold characters are used for P values Sig 2-tailed under 0. Bold characters are used for P Sig 2-tailed under 0. In the present study a detailed karyomorphological analysis of Fritillaria montana and Fritillaria epirotica , in material from Greece, was implemented focusing specifically to the study of the inter- and intrachromosomal asymmetry, as well as the detailed analysis of the marker chromosomes.

Moreover, especially in the case of the genus Fritillaria , marker chromosomes are helpful for the distinction of the chromosome homologues, which is very difficult since the karyotype usually consists of mostly acrocentric and subtelocentric chromosomes with similar size. However, when it comes to triploid karyotypes of the same species, the secondary constrictions are not stable in number and position.

The first two chromosome pairs, which are the longest ones of the complement, have a different morphology than all the other chromosomes of the karyotype, which are acrocentric st and subtelocentric t. The longest chromosome pair is metacentric m no. The third marker chromosome pair no. Finally, the last marker chromosome pair is the fifth in length, comprising of two acrocentric satellited st-SAT chromosomes.

The results are in agreement with previous studies by Kamari a. This is the only one species in Greece with 18 chromosomes and this chromosomal reduction has already been claimed as the result of successive chromosomal reconstructions and Robersonian-fusion of six acrocentric chromosomes into three metacentric ones Darlington , La Cour a , b , c , Kamari a. Zaharof explained the secondary constrictions, which are also observed in the present study, with the above hypothesis. Recently, Peruzzi et al.

Paired t-tests have revealed similarities among the three karyotypes. Another proof for gene loss, is the fact that the triploid cytotype of Fritillaria montana has the lower price of THL. The results concerning the heterogeneity of centromere position CV CI and the intrachromosomal asymmetry M CA are nothing but expected. Following the explanation of this index by Zuo and Yuan , the higher price of CV CI found here, belongs to Fritillaria montana , because the karyotype comprises of mostly metacentric chromosomes.

On the contrary, the higher price of M CA belongs to Fritillaria epirotica , as it has a typical asymmetrical karyotype according to Stebbins In total, the multivariate analysis PCoA confirms all above findings. More precisely, it presents all the accessions belonging to the same species close to each other. The two cytotypes of Fritillaria montana overlap, while the two species are clearly separated Fig. PCoA analysis based on six quantitative karyologial parameters. Generally, karyological characteristics, as chromosome number, ploidy level, centromere position, and the number and location of satellites and secondary constrictions, can be used in elucidating taxonomical relationships of several plant taxa Bareka et al.

Although, karyomorphometrics is able to provide more information about the studied taxa, the conclusions can be used only as additional evidences to the primary hypothesis. Comparative Cytogenetics 10 4 : — National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Comp Cytogenet v. Comp Cytogenet. Published online Dec 1.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author: Pepy Bareka rg. Received Aug 12; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Fritillaria Linnaeus, Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Introduction The genus Fritillaria Linnaeus, Liliaceae comprises approximately taxa of geophytes, found in the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere Kamari and Phitos Table 1.

Kratsovo W Thessalia 24 cult. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 3. Table 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Table 4. Table 5. Discussion In the present study a detailed karyomorphological analysis of Fritillaria montana and Fritillaria epirotica , in material from Greece, was implemented focusing specifically to the study of the inter- and intrachromosomal asymmetry, as well as the detailed analysis of the marker chromosomes. Figure 7. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 8 : — Liliaeceae from Iran and notes on F.

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