Patients should be counseled that this adverse effect tends to be dose related, but it is not always predictable. However, some corticosteroids that lack significant mineralocorticoid activity e. The principal mechanism of corticosteroid-induced hypertension is the overstimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor, resulting in sodium retention in the kidney.
This results in volume expansion and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. Corticosteroid-induced hypertension may respond to diuretic therapy. Fludrocortisone causes significant blood pressure increases and, thus, is useful in treating patients with postural hypotension.
In a study of 64 elderly patients receiving an average dose of 75 mcg of fludrocortisone for approximately five months, four patients had to withdraw because of drug-induced hypertension. The effects of caffeine on blood pressure control are not well defined. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials analyzing the effect of either coffee or caffeine alone on blood pressure levels was recently published. An increase of 2. The effects of coffee and caffeine on heart rate were not significant.
Estrogens and Progestins. Chronic use of oral contraceptives may slightly raise blood pressure in certain women and may have other adverse effects on cardiovascular risk. Although the rise in blood pressure is usually mild, malignant hypertension can occur. Cessation of therapy typically leads to a return to baseline blood pressure within two to 12 months, but proteinuria may persist.
The renin-angiotensin system may be involved, since estrogen stimulates the hepatic production of the renin substrate angiotensinogen. A report from the Nurses' Health Study prospectively evaluated almost 70, female nurses, aged 25 to 42 years.
Overall, only ERT and HRT appear to have a neutral effect on blood pressure as illustrated by the following observations from two large randomized trials. Because it can have a mild stimulant effect, use with other stimulants in patients with cardiovascular disease should be cautioned. A type of ginseng abuse syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, hypertension, nervousness, dermatologic eruptions, and insomnia, has been described. Other supplements that may increase arterial pressure include natural licorice and yohimbine.
The effects of most supplements on blood pressure have not been adequately characterized. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Venlafaxine : Venlafaxine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor SNRI used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The likely mechanism of venlafaxine-induced hypertension is the increase in levels of norepinephrine and the subsequent potentiation of noradrenergic neurotransmission.
Sibutramine is an SNRI and is chemically similar to amphetamine. Sibutramine's likely mechanism of blood pressure elevation in both normotensive and hypertensive patients is the elevated amount of norepinephrine present in the body. Interestingly, an elevation of 7 mmHg was demonstrated in hypertensive patients receiving similar doses.
Sibutramine treatment should probably be limited to patients who do not have cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, functional abnormalities, and coronary artery disease. Immunosuppressants Cyclosporine: The adverse effect of cyclosporine on blood pressure is well known. Treatment of cyclosporine-induced hypertension may be pharmacologic, consisting possibly of calcium channel blockers, diuretics, beta-blockers, or ACE inhibitors, or nonpharmacologic, consisting of reduced sodium intake.
Tacrolimus: In patients with severe, treatment-refractory cyclosporine-induced hypertension, switching to tacrolimus may be an option. Tacrolimus, like cyclosporine, has been shown to have a significant effect on blood pressure. Examples include sympathomimetics, NSAIDs, estrogens, corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and some natural products e. Pharmacists should screen for medications that raise blood pressure and should provide feedback to patients and medical providers to decrease this potential cause of secondary hypertension.
Generally, all patients with hypertension should be monitored more closely anytime additional medications are prescribed, especially when drugs known to raise blood pressure are added. Stroke associated with sympathomimetics contained in over-the-counter cough and cold drugs. Phenylpropanolamine and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.
N Engl J Med. Fleming GA. The FDA, regulation, and the risk of stroke. Mersfelder TL. Phenylpropanolamine and stroke: the study, the FDA ruling, the implications. Cleveland Clin J Med. Effect of oral pseudoephedrine on blood pressure and heart rate: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. Does pseudoephedrine increase blood pressure in patients with controlled hypertension? J Fam Pract. Bradley JG. Nonprescription drugs and hypertension. Which ones affect blood pressure? Postgrad Med. Dexedrine dextroamphetamine sulfate.
August 21, Accessed May 13, Effect of stimulants on h ambulatory blood pressure in children with ADHD: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Pediatr Nephrol. Howard PA, Delafontaine P. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cardiovascular risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. The impact of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on blood pressure, with an emphasis on newer agents.
Clin Ther. Schnitzer TJ. Cyclooxygenasespecific inhibitors: are they safe? Am J Med. Coxibs--beyond the GI tract: renal and cardiovascular issues. J Pain Symptom Manage. Stollberger C, Finsterer J. Side effects of conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and celecoxib: more similarities than differences. South Med J. Fitzgerald GA. Coxibs and cardiovascular disease. N Eng J Med. Meta-analysis of COX-2 inhibitors and their effects on blood pressure.
September 30, Drug-induced hypertension. Recognition and management in older patients. Drugs Aging. Hypertension induced by drugs and other substances. Semin Nephrol. Short term efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone and methylprednisolone therapy in steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. Indian Pediatr. Ferrari P. Cortisol and the renal handling of electrolytes: role in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension and bone disease. Fludrocortisone in the treatment of hypotensive disorders in the elderly.
Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. Woods JW. Oral contraceptives and hypertension. Malignant hypertension in women of childbearing age and its relation to the contraceptive pill. Renal characteristics and effect of angiotensin suppression in oral contraceptive users. Plasma renin substrate, renin activity, and aldosterone levels in a sample of oral contraceptive users from a community survey.
Am Heart J. Prospective study of oral contraceptives and hypertension among women in the United States. Research supports weight loss and maintaining a healthy weight lowers the risk of developing high blood pressure. Try to limit salt intake or 2 grams 2, milligrams per day.
Looking to start a diet to better manage your high blood pressure? Our nutrition guide can help. Prednisone tablet. Updated January 31, Aronow WS. Association of obesity with hypertension. Ann Transl Med. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. High blood pressure symptoms, causes, and problems.
Updated May 19, Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. Prednisone and Blood Pressure. Warning Signs. Preventing High Blood Pressure. When to Call Your Doctor If you are experiencing any of these symptoms you should call your doctor immediately to discuss your symptoms. Prednisone and Low Blood Pressure If you are being weaned off of prednisone and are taking medications to help lower your blood pressure, be sure to discuss the effect the changes in prednisone could have on your blood pressure and monitor for the symptoms of low blood pressure.
Symptoms of low blood pressure can include: Dizziness or feeling lightheaded Nausea Fainting Poor concentration Cold, clammy feeling Blurred vision. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Article Sources. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles.
Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Related Articles. Salt Restriction For Hypertension. What Causes Sudden Pale Skin? How Hypertension Is Treated. Ranges for Abnormal Blood Pressure.
So you can see why these drugs should be avoided at all cost if you have any type of high blood pressure. One of the main side effects of high blood pressure and steroids use is the increase in high blood pressure and we know that elevated blood pressure level is the silent killer.
We read so many stories of body builders who used steroid to build their muscles who end up with high blood pressure and other related illness like kidney disease. With some even dying due to their body organs failure. To-date researchers are still examining the relation between high blood pressure and steroids with evidence pointing to the heightened risk for cardiovascular disease with the constant use of steroids over a long period of time.
High Blood Pressure Definitive Guidebook. Search info-on-high-blood-pressure. Also subscribe to my blog and free monthly ezine for updates. Quickly lowering my blood pressure was a life-or-death decision I had to make. Taking blood pressure medications should not be a life sentence. Lets investigate the many myths about high blood pressure?
One such myth, is hypertension an inevitable result of aging? Read More. All Rights Reserved. Info On HBP. When used properly, these drugs save lives and avert threats to the function of important organs. One of the numerous potential side—effects of prednisone and other forms of corticosteroid treatment is hirsutism — excessive growth of body hair.
Patients vary in the degree to which this side—effect of steroids occurs. Although some experience minimal hirsutism, the patient depicted here developed this side effect after taking 10 milligrams of prednisone for a few months. Weight gain is usually the most dreaded side—effects of steroid use, incurred to some degree by nearly all patients who take them. The amount of weight gain varies from individual to individual.
In addition to causing weight gain, prednisone leads to a redistribution of body fat to places that are undesirable, particularly the face, back of the neck, and abdomen. Pictured below is a example of redistribution of body fat to the back of the neck. High blood sugar, or steroid—induced diabetes. This usually resolves when the steroids are decreased or discontinued. The higher the steroid dose and the longer the duration of therapy, the greater the risk of infection.
The risk is also increased when patients receive combinations of immunosuppressive medications, such as cyclophosphamide cytoxan and prednisone. The risk of some infections can be greatly reduced by taking specific types of antibiotics prophylactically. Pictured below is woman under treatment with prednisone and methotrexate for vasculitis and a concurrent neurologic condition myasthenia gravis developed painful vesicles in her mouth.
The vesicles were confirmed by culture to be caused by re—activation of a Herpes simplex infection, and responded to treatment with acyclovir. Prednisone may cause thinning of the bones even in people who are not usually at high risk for osteoporosis for example: males, young people. In people susceptible to osteoporosis, prednisone may accelerate the process of bone loss.
Fortunately, in the past few years, excellent treatments and preventive measures have become available for osteoporosis. All patients on prednisone for prolonged periods are candidates for these medicines. Patients on moderate to high doses of prednisone often notice that they bruise easily, even with only slight trauma.