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|Sterydy british dragon opinie||More than ever, we need to increase the amount of research on vitamin D ie, increase funding from government agencies and pharmaceutical companies to meet the challenge of maximizing the knowledge of how to use vitamin D in the context of the vitamin D endocrine system to preserve or improve the health of everyone on the planet. Am J Clin Nutr ; 79 : — 5. The LDL-cholesterol level is typically estimated from these numbers using a well-established formula that has been more recently revised and improved by researchers at Johns Hopkins. I thank Helen Henry for her careful steroids forum where to buy of the manuscript and many fruitful discussions and Susan Kim for her secretarial and scientific illustration assistance. There are various forms of vitamin D. Heaney and others recently confirmed earlier data suggesting that vitamin D 3 is substantially more effective than vitamin D 2 67.|
In the absence of vitamin D, dietary calcium is not absorbed at all efficiently. Vitamin D stimulates the expression of a number of proteins involved in transporting calcium from the lumen of the intestine, across the epithelial cells and into blood.
The best-studied of these calcium transporters is calbindin , an intracellular protein that ferries calcium across the intestinal epithelial cell. Numerous effects of vitamin D on bone have been demonstrated. As a transcriptional regulator of bone matrix proteins, it induces the expression of osteocalcin and suppresses synthesis of type I collagen.
In cell cultures, vitamin D stimulates differentiation of osteoclasts. However, studies of humans and animals with vitamin D deficiency or mutations in the vitamin D receptor suggest that these effects are perhaps not of major physiologic importance, and that the crutial effect of vitamin D on bone is to provide the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus to support mineralization. It turns out that vitamin D receptors are present in most if not all cells in the body.
Additionally, experiments using cultured cells have demonstrated that vitamin D has potent effects on the growth and differentiation of many types of cells. These findings suggest that vitamin D has physiologic effects much broader that a role in mineral homeostasis and bone function. As one example, many immune cells not only express vitamin D receptors, but are capable of synthesizing active vitamin D, and deficiency in vitamin D has been associated with increased incidence of autoimmune disease and susceptibility to disease.
Vitamin D deficiency: The classical manifestations of vitamin D deficiency is rickets, which is seen in children and results in bony deformaties including bowed long bones. Deficiency in adults leads to the disease osteomalacia. Both rickets and osteomalacia reflect impaired mineralization of newly synthesized bone matrix, and usually result from a combination of inadequate exposure to sunlight and decreased dietary intake of vitamin D.
Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency occurs in several other situations, which you might predict based on the synthetic pathway described above:. Genetic defects in the vitamin D receptor : a number of different mutations have been identified in humans that lead to hereditary vitamin D resistance. Severe liver or kidney disease : this can interfere with generation of the biologically-active form of vitamin D.
Insufficient exposure to sunlight : Elderly people that stay inside and have poor diets often have at least subclinical deficiency. Ironically, it appears that hypovitaminosis D is very common in some of the most sunny countries in the world - the cause of this problem is the cultural dictate that women be heavily veiled when outside in public. Sunscreens, especially those with SPF ratings greater than 8, effectively block synthesis of vitamin D in the skin.
However, people that use such sunscreens religiously live in industrial countries where many foods are supplemented with vitamin D, and vitamin D deficiency is thereby averted by dietary intake. Vitamin D toxicity: Excessive exposure to sunlight does not lead to overproduction of vitamin D. Vitamin D toxicity is inevitably the result of overdosing on vitamin D supplements. Certainly, vitamin D supplements are a valuable treatment for individuals with deficiencies. However, ingestion of excessive milligram quantities of vitamin D over periods of weeks of months can be severely toxic to humans and animals due primarily to hypercalcemia.
In fact, baits containing large quantities of vitamin D are used very effectively as rodenticides. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease: There has been considerable interest in the potential for vitamin D supplements to suppress development of cancer or prevent cardiovascular disease. Most of this enthusiasm is based on studies with laboratory animals, but human trials have failed to support beneficial effects vitamin D supplementation in preventing such diseases.
Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones. Updated January So what are your target numbers? In general, women have higher levels of HDL cholesterol than men because the female sex hormone estrogen seems to boost this good cholesterol. But, like so much else, everything changes at menopause. At this point, many women experience a change in their cholesterol levels — total and LDL cholesterol rise and HDL cholesterol falls. This is why women who had favorable cholesterol values during their childbearing years might end up with elevated cholesterol later in life.
Of course, genetics and lifestyle factors can play big roles, too. Medication: Depending on your overall cardiovascular disease risk, you might be treated with a cholesterol-lowering medication, such as a statin. If you already have vascular disease or evidence of atherosclerosis, or if you are at high risk for cardiovascular disease, a statin for prevention is strongly recommended because this treats the plaque in the arteries, and lowers LDL cholesterol, Michos says.
While nobody wants to have high cholesterol, there are plenty of ways to keep it in check. One of the best things you can do to protect and improve your health is to stay informed. If you have a new or existing heart problem, it's vital to see a doctor. Our heart health checklist can help you determine when to seek care. Health Home Wellness and Prevention. Understanding the Highs and Lows of Cholesterol You know that too much is dangerous.
And guess what? This buildup can start as early as your 20s. What to Know About Triglycerides In addition to cholesterol, you might hear about your triglycerides, another kind of fat found in the bloodstream. Why Cholesterol Affects Women Differently In general, women have higher levels of HDL cholesterol than men because the female sex hormone estrogen seems to boost this good cholesterol.
There are several ways to manage it, including: Medication: Depending on your overall cardiovascular disease risk, you might be treated with a cholesterol-lowering medication, such as a statin. Exercise for at least 30 minutes five or more days per week. Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean protein and high amounts of soluble fiber such as beans and oats, which can reduce LDL. Avoid sugar-sweetened drinks and fruit juices — opt for water and unsweetened tea instead — and minimize your intake of other simple carbohydrates like baked goods and candy.
Drink alcohol in moderation, especially if you have elevated triglycerides. Consider the Mediterranean diet , which is rich in fruits, vegetables, grainy breads and fish. Use olive oil instead of butter and spices instead of salt.
Eat monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats — such as those found in olive oil, nuts and fatty fish like salmon. They can actually have a positive effect on cholesterol, Michos says, by reducing the amount of LDL in the blood and reducing inflammation in the arteries, especially when they replace saturated fats in the diet.
Add these to your shopping list: Fatty fish such as salmon, trout, mackerel, sardines and albacore tuna Nuts, including walnuts, pecans, almonds and hazelnuts Olive oil to drizzle lightly over your salads and vegetables While nobody wants to have high cholesterol, there are plenty of ways to keep it in check. Sign Up for Our Free Newsletter One of the best things you can do to protect and improve your health is to stay informed. Sign Up. Stay on Top of Your Heart Health If you have a new or existing heart problem, it's vital to see a doctor.
Cholesterol is a precursor for other important steroid molecules: the bile salts, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. Go to. Sources of vitamin D hormones include exposure to ultraviolet light an inverse relation between 25(OH)D3 levels and cardiovascular risk. Clinical guidelines were developed based on observational studies showing an association between low serum levels and increased cardiovascular.