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From part of the guide:. Bro, can i ask? Atlantica Indonesia now hv caps If someone is Lvthey should get a higher quality box, but that is all dependent on if the developers of AO Indonesia actually made that change.

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Def: gravedad de la respuesta emocional o social o existencial del aislamiento. Def: acciones personales para controlar los factores estresantes que ponen a prueba los recursos del individuo. Def: acciones personales para controlar los factores estresantes que ponen a prueba los recursos el individuo.

Def: acciones de la familia para controlar los factores estresantes que comprometen los recursos de la familia. Def: convicciones personales que influyen en la conducta hacia la salud. Fomentar la resistencia. A lo largo de todo el proceso de tuvieron en cuenta los criterios de calidad de uso habitual en este tipo de investigaciones.

Los participantes se seleccionaron contando con el apoyo del movimiento asociativo. Un familiar representa a dos personas diagnosticadas y hay dos parejas que representan a una persona diagnosticada. Ambos en la ciudad de Madrid. El grupo concluye con una pregunta que se formula para que cada participante conteste por turno. El resto del discurso queda sin analizar, aunque se utiliza para contextualizar las recomendaciones. Los resultados de este estudio son descriptivos y no interpretativos.

Grupo de familiares. Pero eso lo tuve que exigir yo Eso es algo que el familiar no te lo perdona en la vida. No puedes quitarle los ojos de encima. Es un campo en es que se necesita que se siga investigando, trabajando, y que se tomen medidas.

El papel de las familias. Que no delegue en las asociaciones para hacer eso, y si se delega, que se den medios. Es un sistema perverso. Todos los participantes coinciden en que disminuir las cifras de muerte por suicidio debe ser una prioridad a todos los niveles.

Piden un trato equitativo para las asociaciones de usuarios y familiares. Pero nos tenemos que dedicar a eso. Que entre pares se puedan discutir los tratamientos. La enfermedad es jodida, pero la vamos manejando, la vamos conociendo, haciendo lo que se puede. Y la originalidad de algunas de ellas. En muestras suficientemente grandes, reduce las diferencias entre los distintos grupos y permite comparar el efecto de la variable estudiada sobre ellos. Craving: Querencia o apetencia por re-experimentar los efectos de una sustancia en el organismo.

Morbilidad: Enfermedad ocasionada. Odds Ratio OR : Es una medida de la eficacia de un tratamiento. Si es igual a 1, el efecto del tratamiento no es distinto del efecto del control. Si el OR es mayor o menor que 1, el efecto del tratamiento es mayor o menor que el del control. Se utiliza para reducir posibles sesgos principalmente, los derivados de las expectativas de los sujetos frente al tratamiento.

Riesgo Relativo RR : El cociente entre la tasa de eventos en el grupo tratamiento y control. Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional. Understanding financial conflicts of interest. N Engl J Med Aug 19; 8 Relationships between authors of clinical practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. Bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder in adults, children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care.

Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Concretamente, la Web de este organismo permite establecer comparaciones entre las GPCs que incluye. Esto indica que tiene una moderada calidad global. Guideines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders.

Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with Trastorno bipolar. The management of Trastorno bipolar in adults, children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of Trastorno bipolar Bipolar affective disorder. A national clinical guideline.

Bowden, MD; Michael J. Gitlin, MD; Paul E. Keck, MD; Roy H. Thase, MD; Karen D. Co-Chair ; Oscar Bukstein, M. Co-Chair ; Joseph Beitchman, M. Scott Benson, M. We also drew upon the experience of patients and their families. Philip B. Gin S. Bernette L. Jillian Ball. Editorial consultants Jean Dunn and Sidney Bloch for their editorial comments.

Peter Whybrow USA , Kazuo Yamada Japan The aim of this guideline is to bring together different views on the appropriate pharmacological treatment of Trastorno bipolar from scientifically well-respected experts and representatives of all continents. A first draft of these guidelines was compiled by the board and sent out to all 55 members to collect their comments on, additions to and corrections of this first draft.

MB No especificado. No especificado. Se han tomado medidas para reducir el sesgo potencial en las recomendacione s debidas a posibles conflictos de intereses. Jillian Ball y Bernette Redwood nunca han recibido apoyo financiero de la industria. Psyc hEducation. Adultos con trastorno bipolar. Shekelle et a1 Ante la falta de evidencia, se incorporan otros datos. Partes I y II: Combinan elementos de la evidencia recogida y el consenso de expertos.

Se pretende llegar a recomendacion es basadas en la evidencia pero con aplicabilidad en Escocia. No hay datos suficientes ni consenso para apoyarlas. Pubm ed. Alcance y objetivos 2. Aplicabilidad 6. Independencia editorial American Psychiatric Association 90 80 75,0 70 66,7 61,1 59,5 60 50 40 30 25,0 20 10 0,0 0 1.

Independencia editorial Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatment 90 80 70 66,7 58,3 60 50 58,3 45,2 40 30 25,0 20 11,1 10 0 1. Independencia editorial ,0 ,0 ,0 4. Independencia editorial National Institute for Clinical Excellence ,0 97,6 90 80 70,8 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1. Independencia editorial Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network ,0 95,8 88,9 88,1 90 80 70 60 50,0 50 44,4 40 30 20 10 0 1.

Independencia editorial World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 33,3 33,3 3. Alcance y objetivos. Comentarios generales sobre las recomendaciones 3. Otros comentarios. Tratamiento del trastorno bipolar en situaciones especiales 6. Tratamiento del trastorno bipolar en la infancia y adolescencia 6. Embarazo y lactancia 7. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The management of bipolar disorder in adults, children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care The British Psychological Society and Gaskell; Correll CU.

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J Clin Psychiatry, ; 69 8 : Efficacy of a protein kinase C inhibitor tamoxifen in the treatment of acute mania: a pilot study. Bipolar Disord ; 9: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 6-week study on the efficacy and safety of the tamoxifen adjunctive to lithium in acute bipolar mania. A double-blind, placebo-controlled doseresponse comparison of intramuscular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia.

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The Journal of clinical psychiatry, ; 67 3 : Effectiveness of the extended release formulation of quetiapine as monotherapy for the treatment of acute bipolar depression. Aripiprazole monotherapy in nonpsychotic bipolar I depression: results of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, ; 28 1 : Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, ; 26 6 : J Clin Psychiatry, ; 69 5 : Efficacy of modern antipsychotics in placebo-controlled trials in bipolar depression: a meta-analysis.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, ; 13 1 : Drugs, ; 68 8 : Level of response and safety of pharmacological monotherapy in the treatment of acute bipolar I disorder phases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, ; 13 6 : A prerequisite for recognition was the presence of a minority in Hungary for at least a century. All recognized minorities are entitled to establish their respective minority self-governments, which ensure a broad cultural autonomy and primarily deal with cultural and educational afairs cf.

Dobos After the Second World War the Hungarian minority groups faced tremendous changes in their social networks, which in turn spurred a shift in their attitude towards identity. Magyar, as the oicial state language, became prerequisite for upward social mobility and social integration. As a result, ethnic minority commu- nities experienced a rapid decline in the use of native vernaculars and an increase in interethnic marriages.

It comes as no surprise, therefore, that the Serbs in Hungary no longer base their ethnic identity solely upon traditional symbolic values. According to a recent sociolinguistic survey on the Hun- garian ethno-linguistic minorities, most interviewed Serbs expressed their identity through their association with Serbian cultural, social and biologi- cal ancestry Slava is a widespread tradition among the Serbs, but the custom can also be found among other Balkan Slavs, cf.

SM, s. Interethnic marriages within the Serbian minority community Marriage patterns among the Serbian rural population in Hungary have changed over the centuries. Orthodox Christian endogamy has been em- braced and practised since the nineteenth century e.

Marriages with Serbo-Croatian speaking Catholics in Hungary e. Ratz, Bunjevac ethnic communities have been practised since the mid-twentieth century. However, interethnic marriages with Magyars and Germans, either Catholic or Protestant, were generally rejected until the end of the Second World War cf. Nevertheless, since the Second World War the Serbs in Hungary have had one of the highest exogamy rates of all minority groups cf. Lovra , a Serb-inhabited village on the Csepel Island, rose from Pomaz , a town in the environs of Budapest; by the percent rose to Besides, according to a sociological survey conducted in , more than 80 percent 6 hese igures may be accounted for by possible Serbian minority sympathizers com- ing from Croatian, Ratz or Bunjevac Roman Catholic communities as well as from interethnic marriages, who could have declared an ailiation with the Serbian minority.

Namely, the Census allowed respondents to give three responses to each of the four questions concerning aspects of ethnic identity cf. On the whole, inter- ethnic marriages among the Serbs in Hungary are now a commonplace — an issue to cope with in everyday life. An anthropological survey exploring the relationship between Serbi- an ethnic identity and attitudes has found a generational gap when it comes to marriage issues.

Furthermore, the respondents claim that exogamic marriages contributed to language shift and doubt the possibility of egalitarian bilingualism within an exogamic, especially Mag- yar-Serb, family ibid. On the other hand, Serbs tend to marry Magyars — Middle-aged Serbs still value ethnic endogamy more than exogamy, but generally have a tolerant attitude towards interethnic marriages cf. A tolerant attitude towards interethnic marriages prevails among the youngest generation of Serbs in Hungary.

A striking result of the ideology of endogamy is volun- tary celibacy, which is widespread among the elderly Serbs in Hungary, and can still be found even among younger generations. Still, nowadays even the oldest Serbs prefer ethnic exogamy to celibacy and to the prospect of having no ofspring at all ibid. Pesty [] , 80— Moreover, the settlement ranks among the irst docu- mented cases of Serbian group migration to Hungary.

Consequently, the ethnic makeup of the village entirely changed. Nowadays the village is inhabited by Magyars, Germans, and Serbs, alongside a few families of Orthodox Bulgarian origin who had for the most part become assimilated into the Serb population.

In the post-WWII pe- riod, Magyars made up the majority of the village population, followed by the Germans; the Serbian community has seen a constant demographic de- cline, accounting for less than 5 percent of the total population since cf. Table 1 below; Population Census Such a tight-knit social network system, as Milroy , suggests, has the capacity to impose a norma- tive consensus on its members.

Besides, until the ear- ly s, Accordingly, the interwar generations ex- perienced a sharp change in their social network: their childhood and early youth was characterized by an ethnically closed, multiple and dense net- work; on the other hand, in their mature and senior years they have found themselves living in a constantly changing community marked by a high degree of language shift from native Serbian to predominant Magyar, as well as a predominance of exogamy.

As the interview questions concerned the distinctive linguistic, societal and cultural features of the lo- cal community, the discourse of both interviewers and interviewees may be described as ethnocentric. It is a manifestation of identity discourse, which, as Mladenova , argues, provides answers to questions such as: Who are we?

What are we known for? What makes us proud to be? Gal , Tolstoj Instead of discarding it, they should acknowledge that authenticity does not exist prior to the authenticating practices that create it. Namely, according to Bucholtz , , we need to separate authenticity as an ideology from authentication as a social practice. Be- sides, questions concerning the past and past lifestyles may be criticized for clearly attempting to trigger nostalgic discourse.

Like Buholtz , , I also believe that instead of nostalgic approaches in modern humanities, we might have relexive approaches which attend to the ways that language, history, and culture are mobilized via ideology to create structures of unequal power. Lapadat Transcription conventions used in the text that follows are: R researcher IL interlocutor IL1, IL2 several interlocutors … short pause 3—5 sec.

Discourse on interethnic marriages In the following analysis I shall apply the Bakhtinian concept of heteroglos- sia Bakhtin , By contrast, internally persuasive discourse is open to all kinds of revisions and negotia- tions; it is not backed up by any authority at all, and frequently lacks even acknowledgement by society. Native language loss and interethnic marriages As the dialogical utterance [1] demonstrates, the discursive link between native language loss and interethnic marriages seems to be a very straight- forward one.

IL: Well, now, my parents were Serbs; my husband was a Serb, my children too [1. Simultaneously, IL developed an internally persuasive discourse which undermined the dominant traditional ideology. IL asserted that her daugh- ter-in-law of mixed Serbian and Swab origin encouraged her to speak Serbian to the grandchildren, but IL was explicit that she had not pursued it, justifying her choice by her feeling that her grandsons were confused between two languages e. I saw it confused the children [1.

Also, IL ut- tered that her granddaughters — even though they came from an endoga- 12 he utterance is deined as a unit of speech interaction whose boundaries are marked by a change of speaking subject Bahtin [] So the authoritative standpoint turns out to be contradicted by the autobiographical evidence.

What can you do?! However, contrary to the claims of IL, the reasons for abandoning the native language seem to be the lack of strategies for handling bilingualism within the nuclear family setting and within a society where a non-native language Magyar predominates and enjoys full legal status and prestige. Snaja mi dren too. My children nowadays unfor- pola Srpkinja, otac joj je Srbin, mati joj tunately, and my small grandchildren.

Ali vidla sam da buni to put them in a sentence. One su, vrlo lepo srpski govor- now. I speak Magyar. I ja hey speak Magyar even with me! And my son-in-law and my daughter are Serbs, and both of them used to speak Serbian well.

And I need to be careful with my words. IL spontaneously associated the loss of slava with interethnic marriages and exempliied it by impersonal sentences and generic references e. In utterance [2], an echo is observable of the patriarchal view that in an interethnic mar- riage women are more likely than men to give up their ethnic identity.

IL strongly de- nied [2. Hence utterance [2] indicates that negative attitudes to interethnic marriages among elderly Serbs in Hungary are grounded in the fear of identity loss. Who stopped neko ostavio slavu? Da je prekinuo da observing it? Ako je Srbin [by deinition] did not observe slava. If you ask me, dogodilo. I have to [2. Hence, the past culture is represented as a totality, in which socio-cultural activities and language index each other, whereas the present culture is portrayed as corrupted and fragmented cf.

Tsitsipis , Furthermore, the past is looked at with nostalgia, while the present deserves criticism and scepticism. In this discursive order, orien- tation towards the future is absent. We were souls [3. Consequently, the interlocutors employed an authentication strategy to value endogamy and a depreciation strategy to denigrate exogamy.

IL2: Pure, pure! IL1: Mixed. R: But those of you who are pure. IL2: 90 percent is all … mixed [3. In that way, the in- terlocutors backed up the traditional rule of endogamy and developed an authoritative discourse. With this utterance IL2 switched to internally persuasive discourse. Also, it was only then that the interlocutor used an autobiographic reference my son , while maintaining generic semantics when referring to his daughter- in-law a Magyar woman.

Hence, the authoritative ideology was, on the one hand, supported [3. Even my son … [3. Bilo nas quite a few of us. We were souls. But those of you who [3. Endogamy vs. Towards the end of our interview I posed a personal question concerning her marriage, expecting her to re- solve the contradiction between what she had said and her autobiographic experience [4. Both narratives topicalized unhappy endogamous relationships and served the same strategy, which is justifying her choice to marry a Magyar.

Because the man I loved deceived me. Heightened expressiveness was achieved by repetition. However, the resolution came with re- luctance and it was articulated only after I intervened with a question And? Hence, her interethnic marriage, which was the point of the whole narrative, was only implied. Albeit primarily autobiographical, utterance [4] was actually based on an interplay between authoritative discourse, which only acknowledged endogamy, and internally persuasive discourse, embodied in two personal experience narratives that involved an implicit criticism of the traditional rule of endogamy.

Ja sam ga jako za- with him, and he found quietly: a volela. And I found [4. So, I to doznala i kazala sam da … dosta je was still young, about 18, 19, I said I bilo. Tako sam, onda dok sam mlada would never marry anyone. Because the bila, tako osamnest, devetnest godina, one I loved deceived me. And then, somehow, I voleti.

Onda ste? I onda see. Indeed, my [4. Tako da, says. Conclusion he aim of this paper has been twofold: irstly, it presents some basic in- formation about interethnic marriages among the Serbs in Hungary, which is a relatively recent social phenomenon in the Serbian rural communities; secondly, it attempts to understand how authoritative discourse operates within a small tight-knit traditional community faced with radical social changes.

It seeks to shed some light on the strategies employed to reinforce the authoritative discourse of tradition threatened by social change. Hence, my focus is on elements of discursive arguments, notably causal construc- tions and evaluations, generated with reference to the emergence of inter- ethnic marriages.

As the ties binding a traditional community together have weakened, the authoritative traditional ideology and its discourse persist in a somewhat disaggregated form among the elder members of the community. In that way, the elderly community members express, implicitly or explicitly, a negative evaluation of interethnic marriages. In view of the currently very high exogamic rate among the Serbs in Hungary, it is likely that the community members can no longer claim authenticity on the basis of endogamy.

Prauser and A. Rees, 33— Available at: www. Bakhtin, M. University of Texas Press. Bahtin, M. Bartha, Cs. Language Policy 5, — Boym, S. New York: Basic Books. Bucholtz, M. Davidov, D. Spomenici Budimske eparhije. Eckardt, R. Journal of Semantics 16, — EP Enciklopedija pravoslavlja, ed.

Anthropological Linguistics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. In Istorija srpskog naroda IV-1, ed. In Investigating obsolescence. Studies in language contraction and death, ed. Dorian, — So- ia. Hill, J. In Language ideologies: Practice and theory, eds.

Schiefelin, K. Woolard and P. Kroskrity, 68— Oxford University Press. Dahmen, P. Himstedt-Vaid and G. Ressel, — Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. Voss, — Verlag Otto Sagner. Labov, W. Waletzky [] In Sociolinguistics. Paulston and G. Tucker, 74— Blackwell Publishing. Helm, ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Zbornik Matice srpske za istoriju 63—64, — Knjiga 1—2. Novi Sad, Budapest.

Language and Social Networks. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Mladenova, O. A Contribution to Macropragmatics. Olick, J. Annual Review of Sociology 24, — Pesty, F. Plotnikova, A. Population Census Hungarian Central Statistical Oice. Bel- grade, — In Balgarskite ostrovi na Balkanite, eds.

Ase- nova et al. Tolstoj and Lj. Belgrade in Serbian Cyrillic Tolstoj, N. Jezik slovenske kulture. Szarka, — Papp and L. Availa- ble at: www. Journal of Pragmatics 35, — In National and Ethnic Minorities in Hungary, —, ed. Atlantic Research and Publications Inc. In Skrivene manjine na Balkanu, ed. Serbs in Pest-Buda. Williams, R. Serbia was not seen as directly involved in the events in Herzegovina. But there is no de- initive explanation as to why and how the Herzegovinian uprising began.

All authors consider the causes of the Herzegovinian uprising to be the result of a speciic mix of domestic and foreign inluences. Most of them see the immediate cause in agrarian discontent. II Belgrade: Prosveta, , —; M. On the land reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina, see also D. On diferent aspects of the land law see H. Inalcik and D. According to the recently published documents from Russian archives, however, the Russian consuls in Mostar, Sarajevo and Dubrovnik believed that the upris- ing was caused by heavy taxation and Ottoman incompetence.

Moreover, they suspected that there was secret Austrian inluence among the insur- gents. Milford Oxford University Press, , 5. Kosik et al. Moscow: Indrik, , 17— Ltd, , In June and July , when the uprising broke out, most diplomats were on vacation in European spas and capitals. By contrast, the British consuls in Sarajevo and Dubrovnik, as well as the ambassador in Constanti- nople, were at their oices, busy gathering information and sending reports to Lord Derby, foreign secretary in the Conservative cabinet of Benjamin Disraeli.

A pronounced Turkophile, as the contemporary British diplomats serving in the Balkans tended to be,15 the British consul in Sarajevo, Wil- liam Holmes, relied almost exclusively on information supplied by Dervish Pasha, governor general of Bosnia, and by other Ottoman oicials.

He was aware of the policies of Prince Niko- la, who was using his inluence in this troubled region to extract territorial gains from the Porte. It is therefore interest of Turkey that Montenegro should be friendly, peaceful and contented. He claimed that everything was organized by a group of refugees from Herzegovina, who had win- tered in Montenegro, and then reappeared in Herzegovina in revolt, killing everyone who tried to negotiate with the Ottoman authorities.

On these refugees, see V. On the role of Montenegro in the outbreak of the uprising see also V. In Kotor he met the Prince of Montenegro. Some historians believe that the Montenegrin Prince and the Habsburg Emperor came to an understanding, and that Prince Nikola might have had Russian support in that. It is known that the Crown Coun- cil convened in Vienna on 29 January had already made the decision to send Habsburg troops into Bosnia and Herzegovina should a conlict arise between Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire.

Stillman, he Autobiography of a Journalist, vol. In vol. Reports are current of an Austrian armed intervention. Like Mac-Mahon, Disraeli suspected that the three Em- perors were preparing the ground to settle the Eastern Question on their own, to the exclusion of Britain. I, ed. Monypenny and G. Between September and March , ed.

Moreover, White was informed that about one hundred volunteers had left Serbia to join the insurrection in Herzegovina. In addition to Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, the Porte was now accusing Serbia too of providing help to the rebels in Herzegovina.

Upon his return from Vienna, the Prince dismissed the cabinet,81 but this proved to be an unwise move from the standpoint of his own interests, be- cause the election brought the openly belligerent Liberals to power. Yet, a day later, Buchanan learnt from the Austrian foreign ministry that the insurrection had indeed spread to Bosnia, and that the Habsburg authorities accused Prince Milan of forgetting the promise of neutrality he had made in Vienna.

On the very same day Buchan- an informed the Foreign Oice about the outbreak of the insurrection in Bosnia 19 August , and the Russian ambassador in Constantinople, Count Ignatiev, proposed to the Porte on behalf of the three Emperors to accept mediation by the Consuls of the Great Powers, who would meet up with the rebel leaders and persuade them to agree to the administrative and tax reforms.

Disraeli suspected 81 NA, FO, , , vol. V-1, ed. Ustanak u Hercegovini — Belgrade: Odbor za podizanje Nevesinjskog spomenika, Bosanski ustanak — Stvaranje Jugoslavije. Belgrade: Prosveta, Evans, A. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Harris, D. Inalcik, H. II: — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Iseminger, G. Zbornik za istoriju Bosne i Hercegovine 6 , — Disraeli and the Eastern Question. Oxford: Oxford University Press, MacKenzie, D.

Millman, R. Britain and the Eastern Question — Oxford: Clarendon Press, Monypenny, W. New York: he Macmillan Company, Belgrade: SANU, In Istorija srpskog naroda. Rossiya i vosstanie v Bosnii i Gercegovine — Dokumenty, eds. Kosik, D. Popylko, V. Moscow: Indrik, Rupp, G. A Wavering Friendship: Russia and Austria — Harvard University Press and H. Milford Oxford University Press, Seton-Watson, R. Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question.

A Study in Diplomacy and Party Politics. London: Frank Cass and Co. Ltd, Stillman, W. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Sumner, B. Russia and the Balkans — London: Royal Historical Society, London: Ernest Benn Limited, Belgrade: Odbor za podizanje Nevesinjskog spomenika. Wertheimer, E. Graf Julius Andrassy, sein Leben und seine Zeit. Relations between the Serbs in the Principality of Serbia and the Serbs in the Monarchy have not received due attention in Serbian histo- riography.

Both terms could be used as neutral or derogatory, depending on the context. Serbia needed to provide for a constitutional government and civil rights, to abolish unpaid forced labour kuluk , to encourage the develop- ment of trade and commerce, to carry out reforms in education in order to increase literacy and improve the general educational level of the popula- tion.

It therefore made requests to the Austrian government for facilitating the issuance of the nec- essary permits to its citizens of Serbian origin willing to accept employment in Serbia. Some of the Serbs from the Monarchy only stayed in Serbia until their employment contracts expired, or for so long as it took to get a par- ticular job done. Some came to Serbia inspired by the patriotic ideal, but their disillusioning encounter with what they saw as an uncouth environment and despotic rule led to their decision not to prolong their stay, convinced that their individual ef- fort would not be enough to spur any change for the better.

If people are unable to recognize and understand his intentions and goals, what he can do with his high altruistic, cosmopolitan ideas people know nothing about, ideas which are still bitterly struggling for recognition even in enlightened and civilized Europe, in Germany, in England, in France; what he can do with them amidst that uncouthness, in that country freshly reclaimed from barba- rism and violence where the Russian master is intent on lying his despotic lag and on grooming an ally for the future.

It was through their efort and inluence that a fossilized patriarchal society such as Serbia was at the beginning of the century began to change and to accustom itself to a diferent code of behaviour, to a dif- ferent dress style, to luxury, gradually abandoning the traditional system of values. Serbs born outside Serbia are among the members of the State Council, the min- isters and the judges of the Court of Appeals; lesser oicials are countless and their number is growing daily.

A few characteristic examples from the area of education may illustrate how valuable the Serbs from the Monarchy were to Serbia. On the other hand, only four of the other seven were Serbs born in the Principality of Serbia.

By way of illustration, let me mention a few reports involving some of the most prominent igures origi- nally from the Habsburg Monarchy. Collection of Docu- ments], ed. Apart from one from Bosnia, they all were Serbs from Hungary. Vasilije Dj. Among other things, they bring this report from the Serbian border, noting that it comes from a Serb.

But all those well-meant hopes were nothing but delusions, mere wishful thinking. II, 63— It is true that they did not prohibit it explicitly, but they insist that every foreigner should start from the lowest position, because the employed foreigners already hold high posts and cannot be made accountable to others. It is a great pity that the young Prince does not realize that this practice is more harmful to the fatherland than an explicit and deinitive removal of foreigners; because, which educated and respectable man would be willing to go over there under such conditions?

Only deplorable sons, who already are many there He allowed the irst three to return to Serbia. Namely, the Consti- tutionalists generally accused them of a lack of patriotism,54 corruption55 and arrogance,56 while blaming Prince Michael for alienating all promi- nent igures and popular representatives, and for surrounding himself with foreigners instead.

And now the press reports that he was ofered a passport for a foreign country to await better days there, and he stated that he would like to cross over into the Austrian Empire and become an Austrian citizen I know almost all state employees in Serbia and none of them, except for three or four, have ever made a contribution to a hospital or a school fund, although they are more numerous in the administration than Serbian- born Serbs.

He could not put up with the fact that the Serbs from Vojvodina, being more literate and better educated than the Serbs from Serbia, held all important positions in state administration. So, he had a grudge against them almost all his life, looked askance at them, considered them uninvited guests, and insisted whenever he could upon their being dismissed from state administration.

On top of it, there is no doubt that, at this point, common Serbian men from Serbia are abler and more reliable in governing this people than Hungarian lawyers. Other subjects of the Habsburg Empire, such as craftsmen, merchants and peasants, who were not involved in the political turmoil in Serbia, were left in peace. Only few from Serbia were also dismissed, and only few of those who came from Austria still hold their positions [ Many schools are closed.

Some have not eaten for three days. If this request is not met, the Serbian government contends that good relations will be impossible to maintain Every issue of his paper ran polemical articles debating about who had started the scrimmage, and about the motivations of the Habsburg Serbs to migrate to Serbia: was it patriotism or the wish to get rich? Round the middle of the century, however, the situation changed considerably. On the same occasion, the State Council also discussed the possibility of dismissing and appropriately compensating the still serving Austrian-born employees, but it was put of, mostly due to lack of funds From now on Serbs will kiss and embrace their fellow Serbs, without caring whether they are separated by the Drina or the Danube or the Sava.

And why? It is not at all at odds with the duties of an Austrian subject to be fond of Serbian nationality However, to exclude from consideration all Serbs born outside Serbia is something we do not expect from the justice-loving and perceptive new government […] because that would be neither productive, nor just; it would not be productive because it is well-known that Serbia still does not have enough qualiied native sons of her own, and it would not be just because there were before and there are now many Serbian sons born on this side of the border who have done much good for Serbia I beg the honest and diligent ones to forgive me; this discussion is of no concern to them.

Being a distinguished lawyer, he came to Serbia with the primary task to draw up a civil law code. Compare with the text published in SNN No. Here is my answer, and rest assured that it is a sincere and brotherly one. Love and merit are rewarded and acknowledged among us here as they are among you there, in the Em- pire; we are following the example of your civilization, not the other way round.

Sapienti sat! You are where you are. It means neither a German or of German origin, but a Vojvodjanin [a Vo- jvodina Serb], an othersider. In that way Serbia en- sured, to the extent possible at the time, the functioning of her state appara- tus. It had a detrimental efect on the relationship between the Serbs from the two sides of the Sava and Danube rivers, as it encouraged particularism and eroded the sense of unity among the Serbs as a whole. UDC 94 Historical Collection, No.

Vojvodina i Srbija u vreme Prvog ustanka. Gradja SAN I. Srbija od do godine. Belgrade n. As a result, the Opposition demanded their dismissal from all state services, except those which could not be illed up with natives. Kunibert, Bartolomeo. Licej —, Zbornik dokumenata. Maletin, Marko. Istorija Matice srpske. Part I: Vreme nacionalnog budjenja i kulturnog preporoda — Popov, Nil. Traganje za trajnim. Sabrana dela Vuka Stef.

Vlada ustavobranitelja — Liberals, Progressives, Radicals and Independent Radicals profoundly shaped the process of espousing and pursuing modern political principles and values in nineteenth-cen- tury Serbia. Keywords: 19th-century Serbia, political elite, Parisians, French political doctrines, lib- eralism, radicalism, democracy, parliamentary system France as a political ideal A prestigious synonym for civilization and culture, but also a desirable model for the processes of achieving political and civil liberties, France undoubtedly played a distinctive role in the development of Serbian society in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Revolutionary France, with the and Revolutions, and the Second and hird Republic, was a constant inspiration for all political reformers in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Serbia. For its long-term efects on both the political and the social landscape of the entire Balkans, the eminent German historian Leopold von Ranke described the — Serbian insurrection as Die Serbische Revolution, by analogy with the French paradigm. Une alliance atypique, ed.

Translated by Mrs. Vucinich, ed. In Serbia, with her markedly egalitarian traditions, the state was un- derstood primarily in Jacobin terms. In a country lacking strong religious and aristocratic classes, the tenets of the French Revolution were strongly present among the Serbian elite as a model, before being gradually dissemi- nated among the literate portion of the population, rural as well as urban, especially after the introduction of a system of compulsory schooling.

Notes historiques, statistiques et commerciales Brussels: Aug. Gilles, In addition to the presence of other foreign inluences e. A number of doctrinal inluences coupled with the process of strength- ening political ties bore some institutional fruit, as a result of the twofold ainity, ideological and political. Even though French inluence was not always immediate, nor were French institutional models adopted literally, it was a consistent and recognizable presence precisely because of the close- ness in the understanding of the state institutions and political principles that drew their origin from the French Revolution.

At the same time, the constitution laws, the laws on the press and political association, as well as the election laws, bore a strong imprint of the solutions built into the legislative foundations of the French hird Republic. Its multiparty system, frequent coalition governments, directly elected Assembly, proportional electoral system, ideologies of radicalism and social- ism, were appealing models to the leading ideologists of Serbian democracy even though not all of them shared the same political views.

Four generations of Serbian Parisians he tendency towards embracing French political ideas became a tradition after —40, with the irst Serbian government scholarship holders bla- godejanci being sent to study at foreign universities, Paris included.

Prior to its independence in , the Principality of Serbia had an area of no more than 37, sq. Half of the nearly ninety percent of rural population were owners of medium-sized holdings 5—20 ha. At the time of the formation of political parties in , Serbia had an enlarged area of 48, sq. Only three years later, in , the population increased by thousand, and the number of towns and small towns rose to over seventy. In , 51, students enrolled in the Serbian primary and sec- ondary schools were taught by 1, teachers.

Within ten years, or by , the urban population grew to , In , , people To the irst modern Serbian generation of political activists, the young Liberals of , France undoubtedly was the political ideal in the sense in which the Second Republic, conceived in the Revolution of , impacted most Balkan elites.

Orphys, Serbian liberals frequently referred to the views of French 19 D. Prilozi istoriji liberalizma od kraja Istorijat sve- toandrejskog liberalizma Belgrade: Nolit, On the United Serbian Youth, see M. Spurred by discrepancies between Serbian constitutional theory and practice, debates over the representative system, parliamentarianism and constitutional liberties proved useful for the efort to combine Western doctrines with the distinctive features of rural democ- ratism from which Serbian parliamentarianism arose.

Lacking any signiicant support for the transmis- sion of the political doctrines among the numerically weak Serbian elites in the s, the Liberals came to be recognized as benevolent conveyors of the doctrines of French democracy only twenty years later, when the in- stitutionalization of political parties led to further polarizations within the more complex political class. Furthermore, secondary school textbooks penned by liberal professors, es- pecially after a law of abolished censorship and relaxed restrictions, had a far-reaching inluence on subsequent generations.

In spite of its attempted ideological renewals, which entailed the es- pousal of some tenets that had made Serbian Radicalism hugely popular among the agrarian masses, the Liberal Party began to crumble immedi- ately after the multiparty system was established in Serbia in In the irst phase of their activity, the Progressives, together with the Radicals, enthusiastically embarked upon an extensive reform of the political system, virtually at the same time republican laws were passed in France in A great similarity between the Serbian Law on the Freedom of As- sociation and Organization of 13 April and its French counterpart of 13 June suggests that the Serbian lawmakers kept a keen eye on the debate held in France and drew on the already accepted French draft law.

Astonished by the efects of their own liberal leg- islation, however, the Progressives introduced restrictions, which disclosed their unwillingness to give up the limited, censitary, democracy. Apart from borrowing from the Belgian and Roma- nian constitutional practices, it drew visibly upon French constitutionalism: joint sessions of the Senate and the Assembly. Radicals: popular sovereignty and local self-government he third generation of the political class in Serbia, the Radicals, had under- gone a profound ideological transformation in the course of the formative decade of their activity — According to the Rad- icals, the monarch was to ofer advice, put forward proposals and spur on his ministers.

According to the Radicals, a government can only result from the parliamentary majority because the people alone have the right to decide, through their freely elected representatives, in which political group to put their trust.

Making it the locus of their political campaigning, they were able to hold sway over about eighty per- cent of the electorate in the early s. Even if there was no direct political contact among them, which was the case with the Serbian and French Radicals in the s, radical doctrine spread as a corpus of universally accepted ideas of political liberty relevant to every European society.

It seems logical, therefore, that this was one of the transmission channels through which radical ideas, both in doctrinal and practical aspects, found their way to Serbia. Pelletan argued for local self-government where the work of local authorities, police included, would be overseen by the mu- nicipality. Nelson, eds. Ideje i pokret Belgrade: Institute for Balkan Studies, , 70— Suspected of being supporters of the Russian anarchists and popu- lists, the Serbian Radicals, however, put much efort into providing theo- retical instruction for their followers even in the irst phase of their activity.

II, — In the late s, when Milovan Dj. In the s, the French Radicals demanded the abolition of the oice of the President of the Republic, while their Serbian counterparts, aware of the importance of monarchy in the Serbian tradition, sought to reduce the king to a neutral role.

Even the overt republicans among the urban party leaders Kosta S. Grouped into a separate section, twenty-six articles out of a total of emphasized and precisely deined, on the French model, the individual rights of the citizen. Prince Peter was famous both for his bravery in battle66 and for his irm democratic beliefs.

When King Peter came to the throne, therefore, it was evidently considered the wisest course to appease the outraged sentiments of the great majority of the nation, who had no part in the [] conspiracy, by reverting to the most liberal constitution, that of , which had been granted by the previous dynasty.

If he dissolves the Skupshtina, the act of dissolution must at the same time appoint a date for the new elections within two months, and the new Skupshtina must be convoked within three months. Oicers and the active list of army, soldiers serving with the colours, criminals, bank- rupts, etc, are temporary disqualiied.

More than one-half of the members must be present to form a quorum. Every Bill must be read and voted upon twice in the same Session in order to become a law, an interval of at least ive days intervening between the irst and second readings. No law may be promulgated, abrogated, modiied, or interpreted without the consent of the National Skupshtina. Unless, therefore, there is a serious split in the Old Radical Party, the Government ought to command a fully suicient majority.

In the above list three seats are not ac- counted for, as the [Narodna] Skupshtina has members. Out of ninety dailies in , seventy-two were published in Belgrade. Before the split in , the Radicals had enjoyed support from as many as ive-sixths of the Serbian electorate, which necessarily led to further dissent.

Vucinich, Serbia between East and West. And there can be no true government by the people without the people being reasonable enough to govern themselves. Democ- racy would betray itself if it gave up on instructing people. All occurrences in the life of a people are taking a turn to its advantage. Not only are those who cherish and wish it working for it, but even the eforts of its opponents go to its favour. It is as if God himself has intervened in the human struggle, helping the just cause of most peoples to prevail by pouring his anger on the enemies of the people.

Everywhere, ev- erywhere, my brothers, the spirit of democracy progresses and spreads, and so must it be here, too. Sociales, —72 , vol. La France et les Serbes Paris: Payot, , Barral, Pierre. Bastid, Paul. Benjamin Constant et sa doctrine. Balcanica XXV-1 , — Zbornik Matice srpske za istoriju 56 , 73— In Susret ili sukob civilizacija na Balkanu, — Balcanica XXIX , — Histoire du peuple serbe.

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Darko katalinic organon Similarly, the com- Thus, combination and add-on studies suggest that in parison of treatment practices performed in the s and acute manic patients who are partial responders to lithium, in the s in a University Department of Psychiatry in valproate or carbamazepine, a good strategy would be to Germany revealed that in the s, a decrease in the add haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or frequency of neuroleptic monotherapy and an increased aripiprazole. A recent review suggests that the magnitude of Beyond this reasonable doubt concerning the dangers of improvement was similar steroid table the SGAs were utilized as antidepressant use, the general concept is that dual-action monotherapy or adjunctive therapy []. Intervenciones psicosociales. Table 1 below; Population Census Arch Gen Psychiatry, ; 60 12 : J Clin Psychiatry, ; 69 5 :
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Nebule with steroids Lamotrigine in the 6-month treatment of tham LN Antidepressant-associated mood elevations in bipolar I depression. Spurred by discrepancies between Serbian constitutional theory and practice, debates over the representative system, parliamentarianism and constitutional liberties proved useful for the efort to combine Western doctrines with the distinctive features of rural democ- ratism from which Serbian steroid table arose. J Clin Psychiatry Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for acute — treatment of bipolar anxiety. See S. But two veterans trying to defend the dinar in Zagreb had to pay with their lives. Apart from borrowing from the Belgian and Roma- nian constitutional practices, it drew visibly upon French constitutionalism: joint sessions of the Senate and the Assembly. S30 References

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