structure of steroids ppt

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Structure of steroids ppt how are steroids used in living organisms

Structure of steroids ppt

ELITE STEROIDS

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Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Steroids 1. Contents 1. General introduction 2. Chemistry 3. Stereochemistry 4. Nomenclature 5. Structure elucidation of male and female sex hormones and contraceptive agent. Steroid, any of a class of natural or synthetic organic compounds characterized by a molecular structure of 17 carbon atoms arranged in four rings.

These are compound which are widely distributed in animals and plant. Steroids name derived from sterol. Steroids are the characterized by the presence of 1,2 cyclopentophenthrene. The steroid group includes all the sex hormones adrenals cortical hormones, bile acids, and sterols of vertebrates, as well as the molting hormones of insects and many other physiologically active substances of animals and plants.

Steroids vary from one another in the nature of attached groups, the position of the groups, and the configuration of the steroid nucleus or gonane. Small modifications in the molecular structures of steroids can produce remarkable differences in their biological activities. Sterols the sterols, is composed of the common 3-monohydroxy steroids of the cholestane, ergostane, and stigmastane series and their methyl sterol biogenetic precursors.

It containing alcoholic group at C-3 position and a side chain of 8 to 10 carbon atoms at C are called sterols. Structure of sterols with carbon numbers 6 7. Sterols are classified into 3 groups based on their source of origin. They are: 1. Zoosterols : It found in animals. Phytosterols : It found in plants. Mycosterols : it commonly found in yeast and fungi.

Sterols may be found either as free sterols, acylated sterol esters , alkylated steryl alkyl ethers , sulfated sterol sulfate , or linked to a glycoside moiety steryl glycosides which can be itself acylated acylated sterol glycosides. This molecule is composed of three region. Chemistry : 1. Presence of double bond and hydroxyl group a.

The conversion of cholesterol into cholestanol show the presence of double bond. The oxidation of cholestanol with chromic acid into cholestanone shows the presence of secondary alcoholic group inn cholesterol. Presence of a ring system : The molecular formula of cholestane corresponds to the general formula CnH2n-6 of a tetracyclic system. The reaction shows the presence of cyclopentenophenantherene nucleus in cholesterol and thus cholesterol is a steroid.

Position of the Hydroxyl group : The formation of 3,7-dimethyl cyclopentenophenanthrene from cholesterol by the following steps is possible only if —OH group is considered at position C- 3 16 Sapogenin Sapogenins are the aglycones, or non-saccharide, portions of the family of natural products known as saponins.

Sapogenins contain steroid or other triterpene. Chemically they are steroidal compounds characterized by the presence of a spiroketal side chain. The rings can be different in nature or identical. Cardiac glycosides Group of steroidal glycosides act as cardiotonic agent. They increase tone, excitability and contractility of cardiac muscles. Cardenolide one double bond, lactone ring : Has five member lactone ring unsaturated attached at C position of steroidal nucleus.

Scrophulariaceae 23 Gitoxigenin Gitaloxigenin Digitoxigenin 25 D-Digitalose D- Digitoxose 26 C23 steroid because of 5 membered lactone. They are digitoxose and digitalose. Nomenclature Discard the names in favor of systematic names which are approved by the international union of pure and applied chemistry.

These differences determine the major pharmacological properties of these drugs and their precursors. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex Objectives Name the hormones synthesized in and secreted from adrenal cortex List the steps of synthesis of adrenal cortical. Lipids fats Ooh, totally aliphatic!. Lipids characteristics Efficient storage of energy!!! Nonpolar or low polarity —Many have a polar end hydrophilic. General Properties of Lipids Naturally-occurring organic compounds that are: 1- insoluble in water 2- soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, such as.

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Steroid, any of a class of natural or synthetic organic compounds characterized by a molecular structure of 17 carbon atoms arranged in four rings. These are compound which are widely distributed in animals and plant.

Steroids name derived from sterol. Steroids are the characterized by the presence of 1,2 cyclopentophenthrene. The steroid group includes all the sex hormones adrenals cortical hormones, bile acids, and sterols of vertebrates, as well as the molting hormones of insects and many other physiologically active substances of animals and plants. Steroids vary from one another in the nature of attached groups, the position of the groups, and the configuration of the steroid nucleus or gonane.

Small modifications in the molecular structures of steroids can produce remarkable differences in their biological activities. Sterols the sterols, is composed of the common 3-monohydroxy steroids of the cholestane, ergostane, and stigmastane series and their methyl sterol biogenetic precursors. It containing alcoholic group at C-3 position and a side chain of 8 to 10 carbon atoms at C are called sterols. Structure of sterols with carbon numbers 6 7.

Sterols are classified into 3 groups based on their source of origin. They are: 1. Zoosterols : It found in animals. Phytosterols : It found in plants. Mycosterols : it commonly found in yeast and fungi. Sterols may be found either as free sterols, acylated sterol esters , alkylated steryl alkyl ethers , sulfated sterol sulfate , or linked to a glycoside moiety steryl glycosides which can be itself acylated acylated sterol glycosides.

This molecule is composed of three region. Chemistry : 1. Presence of double bond and hydroxyl group a. The conversion of cholesterol into cholestanol show the presence of double bond. The oxidation of cholestanol with chromic acid into cholestanone shows the presence of secondary alcoholic group inn cholesterol.

Presence of a ring system : The molecular formula of cholestane corresponds to the general formula CnH2n-6 of a tetracyclic system. The reaction shows the presence of cyclopentenophenantherene nucleus in cholesterol and thus cholesterol is a steroid. Position of the Hydroxyl group : The formation of 3,7-dimethyl cyclopentenophenanthrene from cholesterol by the following steps is possible only if —OH group is considered at position C- 3 16 Sapogenin Sapogenins are the aglycones, or non-saccharide, portions of the family of natural products known as saponins.

Sapogenins contain steroid or other triterpene. Chemically they are steroidal compounds characterized by the presence of a spiroketal side chain. The rings can be different in nature or identical. Cardiac glycosides Group of steroidal glycosides act as cardiotonic agent.

They increase tone, excitability and contractility of cardiac muscles. Cardenolide one double bond, lactone ring : Has five member lactone ring unsaturated attached at C position of steroidal nucleus. Scrophulariaceae 23 Gitoxigenin Gitaloxigenin Digitoxigenin 25 D-Digitalose D- Digitoxose 26 C23 steroid because of 5 membered lactone. They are digitoxose and digitalose. Nomenclature Discard the names in favor of systematic names which are approved by the international union of pure and applied chemistry.

If the side chain does not contain a methylene group. This is indicated by the prefix NOR preceded by the number of carbon atom that has disappeared Mentioned as 21 Nor 33 If the steroid does not contain angular methyl group this is again indicated by the prefix NOR preceded by the number in designating the methyl group.

If contraction of ring of a steroid, this is again indicated by the prefix NOR preceded by a small capital letter indicating the ring affected It is mentioned as A nor 35 If the enlargement of the ring of a steroid this is indicated by the prefix HOMO precede by a small capital letter indicating the ring affected B-HOMO 5 beta pregnane 36 If steroid contain a three membered ring, this is indicated by the prefix cyclo preceded by the number of positions concerned 38 Unsaturation is indicated by changing ane to ene if it contains one double bond, diene if it contains two double bond and triene if it has three double bond.

Naturally occuring steroids contain one or more additional heterocyclic ring fused or attached to ring D formed by the modification of the side chain Cardenolide-lactone-5 member Bufanolide — pyranone-6 member 42 Removal of terminal ring with addition of hydrogen atom at junction where the adjacent ring is indicated by the prefix DES followed by italic capital letter designated the ring Des A 44 Alternative application of nor and homo to the same molecule the abeo system is used Abeo 45 The systematic names are based on the stem name which in turn based on the hydrocarbon system.

Cholestane with 27 Pregnane with 21 Carbon carbon 46 Androstane-carbon 19 Estrane —carbon 18 Gonane — carbon 17 47 Stereo chemistry The stereo chemistry of the rings markedly affects biological activity of a given class of steroids There are six asymmetric carbon atoms 5,8,9,10,13,14 in the nucleus.

Therefore 64 optically active forms are possible 48 It can exist in two conformations namely chair form and boat form. The way in which the rings are fused together. Lithobilianic acid 2. Allolithobilianic acid 3. Isolithobilianic acid 4. Alloisolithobilianic acid 51 The term Syn is used in a similar fashion as anti to define a Cis type relationship. Steroid is a flat which can be explained only if the fusion ring B and C has occurred together in trans manner.

Hydrogen at C-9 is trans to methyl group at C It is also found that peak width of angular methyl group half height for trans fused isomer is larger than that for cis fused isomer 60 Sex steroids Sex steroids also known gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors It was lipid soluble molecule that bind to hormone receptor in the cytoplasm of the target cell.

Androgens male sex hormones ii. Oestrogens female or follicular hormones iii. Gestogens corpus luteum hormones Andogens It is synthesized from cholesterol in the testes and adrenal cortex 63 There are 4 naturally occurring androgens in man i. Testosterone ii. Androsterone iii. Epiandrosterone or androstenedione iv. Dehydroepiandrosterone or DTH 64 Promoted Presentations. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from.

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Steroids are the man-made drugs that completely resemble cortisol naturally secreted hormone in a human body and generally, every man who is into a field of bodybuilding will consume steroids for better results. Hormones and Steroids - Hormones and Steroids L. Steroids: Is It Worth It?

By: Brandon Cogley What are Steroids? Anabolic-androgenic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Finding injectable steroids for strength in the UK Check this out - Strength is the prime attribute that every athlete desires. Anabolic steroids are popular to provide strength faster.

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They are commonly used among bodybuilders. Athletes also uses steroids, but they are illegal as per sports rules. Steroids are consumed either orally or by injection. Uses of Steroids In Humans - Steroids are synthetic hormones designed to treat medical ailments.

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Anabolic steroids - Anabolic steroids" is the familiar name for synthetic substances related to the male sex hormones e.

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General introduction, Chemistry, Stereochemistry, Nomenclature, Structure elucidation of male and female sex hormones and contraceptive. Steroids comprise a group of cyclical organic compounds whose basis is a characteristic arrangement of seventeen carbon atoms in a four- ring. Steroids. Overall Organization of the Lecture Series. Structure, Nomenclature, Conformation, Configuration; Anti-Hyperlipidemic Agents; Androgens.