organon of the medical art pdf

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Organon of the medical art pdf list of topical steroids by potency

Organon of the medical art pdf

Although the Organon was written years ago, it is only now, at the dawn of the 21st century, that its true relevance can be appreciated by all. Complex structure, long sentences and condensed concepts have obscured the totality. A comprehensive index and glossary provide map and keys for treasure hunting in the text.

Help is now at hand! And, for the first time since , the Introduction has been made accessible, clearly showing us how homeopathy is placed in its historical context. From Introduction of this book Over the course of a sixty-year career, from when he stopped practicing the medicine of his day, until he died in , Samuel Hahnemann developed the homeopathic mode of medical treatment, which was as different from the prevailing medical practice as day is to night.

During his long professional career, Hahnemann condensed his precepts on the philosophy and practice of medicine and the maintenance of health into successive editions of the Organon of the Medical Art. The first edition was published in , and the sixth and final edition was completed in , the year before he died.

Hahnemann did not write the Organon only for medical practitioners, in fact, he prescribed the Organon to patients. The book itself is a remedy of the highest potency. Like other great works of art, it constantly reveals new marvels and mysteries, acting dynamically in relation to each reader, and acting differently with each reading. Mine has been to adapt the translation in such a way as to make it as comprehensible and as accessible as possible.

This small group including his contemporaries, Johann Goethe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge comprise the beginning of what may be referred to as a dynamic school of thought. In addition, I have delineated the structure of the Organon by dividing it into chapters and sections, and I have interpreted the text in side-headings and editorial footnotes indicated with an asterisk.

A glossary and index have also been added. The Glossary includes definitions of medical terms used in the Organon, as well as translation notes on specific words. The Index allows readers to use the Organon as a reference work. It also organizes information on certain topics. Steven Decker and I worked together to solve one of the prime difficulties in translating and adapting a text of such complexity as the Organon: the problem of consistency versus context.

At every turn, translators must choose between translating a particular word consistently throughout a text or translating it according to context. Previous translators have opted primarily for translation according to context. Steven and I approached this problem from different directions.

Steven drew on a wide selection of English words to find the particular one that could span the various meanings of a given German word. We then worked together to define key terms in the Glossary so that readers can fully understand the nuances to be associated with particular terms. In other words, through the Glossary definitions, we are giving readers the opportunity to assign the full meaning of a given German word to the English word being used to translate it.

There is no word in English that immediately conveys both of these meanings to the reader. Another frequently encountered problem in moving from one language to another is that different languages carry different ways of looking at something , conceptually dividing things into smaller or larger units. Even a stomach overloaded with indigestible food never requires a medicinal emetic. In such a case nature is competent to rid herself of the excess in the best way through the oeosophagus, by means of nausea, sickness and spontaneous vomiting, assisted, it may be, by mechanical irritation of the palate and fauces, and by this means the accessory medicinal effects of the emetic drugs are avoided; a small quantity of coffee expedites the passage downwards of what remains in the stomach.

But if, after excessive overloading of the stomach, the irritability of the stomach is not sufficient to promote spontaneous vomiting, or is lost altogether so that the tendency thereto is extinguished, while there are at the same time great pains in the epigastrium, in such a paralyzed state of the stomach, a emetic medicine would only have the effect of producing a dangerous or fatal inflammation of the intestines; whereas a small quantity of strong infusion of coffee, frequently administered, would dynamically exalt the sunken irritability of the stomach, and put it in a condition to expel its contents, be they ever so great, either upwards or downwards.

So here also the pretended causal treatment is out of place. Even the acrid gastric acid, to eructations of which patients with chronic diseases are not infrequently subject, may be to-day violently evacuated by means of an emetic, with great suffering, and yet all in vain, for tomorrow or some days later it is replaced by similar acrid gastric acid, and then usually in larger quantities; whereas it goes away by itself when its dynamic cause is removed by a very small dose of a high dilution of sulphuric acid, or still better, if it is of frequent recurrence, by the employment of minutest doses of antipsoric remedies corresponding in similarity to the rest of the symptoms also.

And of a similar character are many of the pretended causal cures of the old-school physicians, whose main effort it is, by means of tedious operations, troublesome to themselves and injurious to their patients, to clear away the material product of the dynamic derangement; whereas if they perceived the dynamic source of the affection, and annihilated it and its products homoeopathically, they thereby effect a rational cure.

This they hold to be a rational mode of treatment, causal medication. Anyone who has felt the tranquil pulse of a man an hour before the occurrence of the rigor that always precedes an attack of acute pleurisy, will not be able to restrain his amazement if told two hours later, after the hot stage has commenced, that the enormous plethora present urgently requires repeated venesections, and will naturally inquire by what magic power could the pounds of blood that must now be drawn off have been conjured into the blood-vessels of this man within these two hours, which but two hours previously he had felt beating in such a tranquil manner?

Not a single drachm more of blood can now be circulating in those vessels than existed when he was in good health, not yet two hours ago! The palliative amelioration that at first ensues from the treatment is far from being crowned by a rapid and perfect cure; on the contrary, the weak and ailing state of the parts thus treated frequently also of the whole body , which always remains, sufficiently shows the error that is committed in attributing the local inflammation to a local plethora, and how sad are the consequences of such abstractions of blood; whereas this purely dynamic, apparently local, inflammatory irritation, can be rapidly and apparently local, inflammatory irritation, can be rapidly and permanently removed by an equally small dose of aconite, or, according to circumstances, of belladonna, and the whole disease annihilated and cured, without such injustifiable shedding of blood.

A favourite idea of the ordinary school of medicine, until recent would that I could not say the most recent! By means also of perpetual fly-blisters and the application of mezereum, they thought to draw away the bad humours and to cleanse the diseased body from all morbific matters but they only weakened it, so as generally to render it incurable, by all these senseless unnatural processes.

Hence, in all the works on Materia Medica from Dioscorides down to the latest books on this subject, there is almost nothing said about the special peculiar action of individual medicines; but, besides on account of their supposed utility in various nosological names of diseases, it is merely stated whether they are diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant or emmenagogue, and more particularly whether they produce evacuation of the stomach and bowels upwards or downwards; because all the aspirations and efforts of the practitioner have ever been chiefly directed to cause the expulsion of a material morbific matter, and of sundry fictitious acridities, which it was imagined were the cause of diseases.

These were, however, all idle dreams, unfounded assumptions and hypotheses, cunningly devised for the convenience of therapeutics, as it was expected the easiest way of performing a cure would be to remove the material morbific matters si modo essent! The causes of our maladies cannot be material, since the least foreign material substance, 10 however mild it may appear to us, if introduced into our blood-vessels, is promptly ejected by the vital force, as though it were a poison; or when this does not happen, death ensues.

If even the minutest splinter penetrates a sensitive part of our organism, the vital principle everywhere present in our body never rests until it is removed by pain, fever, suppuration or gangrene. And can it be supposed that in a case of cutaneous disease of twenty years' standing, for instance, this indefatigably active vital principle will quietly endure the presence of such an injurious, foreign, material exanthematous substance, such as a herpetic, a scrofulous, a gouty acridity,..

Did any nosologist ever see with corporeal eyes such a morbific matter, to warrant him in speaking so confidently about it, and in founding in displaying to view the matter of gout or the poison of scrofula? Atmospheric air injected into the blood-vessels caused death. Vide J. Voigt, Magazin fur den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde, i, iii, p.

Even the mildest fluids introduced into the veins endangered life. Vide Autenrieth, Physiologie, ii,? Even when the application of a material substance to the skin, or to a wound, has propagated diseases by infection, who can prove what is so often Maintained in works on pathology that some material portion of this substance has penetrated into our fluids or been absorbed?

The slightest breath of air emanating from the body of a person affected with smallpox with suffice to produce this horrible disease in a healthy child. What ponderable quantity of material substance could have been absorbed into the fluids, in order to develop, in the first of these instances, a tedious dyscrasia syphilis , which when uncured is only extinguished with the remotest period of life, with death; in the last, a disease smallpox accompanied by almost general suppuration, 3 and often rapidly fatal?

In these and all similar cases is it possible to entertain the idea of a material morbific matter being introduced into the blood? A letter written in the sick-room at a great distance has often communicated the same contagious disease to the person who read it. In this instance, can the notion of a material morbific matter having penetrated into the fluids be admitted?

But what need is there of all such proofs? How often has it happened that an irritating word has brought on a dangerous bilious fever; a superstitious prediction of death has caused the fatal catastrophe at the very time announced; the abrupt communication of sad or excessively joyful news has occasioned sudden death?

In these cases, where is the material morbific principle that entered in substance into the body, there to produce and keep up the disease, and without the material expulsion and ejection of which a radical cure were impossible? But by what all- potent and all- wise purifying draughts will you purge and cleanse the human fluids from this ever reproductive ferment, from this mass of imaginary morbific matter, and that so perfectly, that there shall not remain a particle of such morbific ferment, which, according to this hypothesis, must ever again, as at first transform and corrupt the fluids to new morbific matter?

Were that so it would evidently be impossible to cure these diseases in your way! The champions of this clumsy doctrine of morbific matters ought to be ashamed that they have so inconsiderately overlooked and failed to appreciate the spiritual nature of life, and the spiritual dynamic power of the exciting causes of diseases, a and that they have thereby degraded themselves into mere scavenger-doctors , who, in their efforts to expel from the diseased body morbific matters that never existed, in place of curing, destroy life.

Are, then, the foul, often disgusting excretions which occur in diseases the actual matter that produces and keeps them up? There is a semblance of necessity in the expulsion by purgatives of worms, in so-called vermicular diseases. But even this semblance is false. A few lumbrici may be found in some children; in many there exists ascarides.

But the presence of these is always dependent on a general taint of the constitution and the former cured homoeopathically, which is most easily effected at this age, and none of the worms remain, and children cured in this manner are never troubled with them more; whereas after mere purgatives, even when combined With cina seeds, they soon reappear in quantities.

Yes, sometimes it is expelled; but at the cost of what after-sufferings, and with what danger to life! I should not like to have on my conscience the deaths of so many hundreds of human beings as have fallen sacrifices to the horribly violent purgatives directed against the tapeworm, or the many years of indisposition of those who have escaped being purged to death.

And how often does it happen that after all this health-and-life-destroying purgative treatment, frequently continued for several years, the animal is not expelled, or if so, that it is again produced! What if there is not the slightest necessity for all these violent, cruel, and dangerous efforts to expel and kill the worm? The various species of tapeworm are only found along with the psoric taint, and always disappear when that is cured.

But if the patient happen to be affected with an acute disease of any kind, then the contents of the bowels become intolerable to the animal; it twists about, comes in contact with, and irritates the sensitive walls of the intestines, causing a peculiar kind of spasmodic colic, which increases materially the sufferings of the patient.

So also the foetus in the womb becomes restless, turns about and kicks, only when the mother is ill; but when she is well, it swims quiet in its proper fluid without causing her any suffering. These matters the true physician regards as actual symptoms of the disease, and they aid him to discover the nature of the disease, and to form an accurate portrait of it, so as to enable him to cure it with a similar medicinal morbific agent.

Hence they thought the best thing to do was to imitate nature, by also going to work in the treatment of most diseases in a circuitous manner like the diseased vital force when left to itself, and thus in an indirect manner, 1 by means of stronger heterogeneous irritants applied to organs remote from the seat of disease, and totally dissimilar to the affected tissues, they produce evacuations, and generally kept them up, in order to draw, as it were, the disease thither.

In this imitation of the self-aiding operation of nature, as some call it, they endeavoured to excite, by force, new symptoms in the tissues that are least diseased and best able to bear the medicinal disease, which should draw away 2 the primary disease under the semblance of crises and under the form of excretions, in order to admit of a gradual lysis by the curative powers of natures.

So that here too was the notion of a substance and a morbific matter, excessively subtile though it might be supposed to be! But in severe acute and in chronic diseases which constitute by far the greater portion of all human ailments, crude nature and the old school are equally powerless; in these, neither the vital force, with its self-aiding faculty, nor allopathy in imitation of it, can affect a lysis, but at the most a mere temporary truce, during which the enemy fortifies himself, in order, sooner or later, to recommence the attack with still greater violence.

To assist this derivative method they employed the allied treatment by counter-irritants; woolen garments to the bare skin, foot-baths, nauseants, inflicting on the stomach and bowels the pangs of hunger the hunger-treatment , substances to cause pain, inflammation, and suppuration in near or distant parts, as the application of horseradish, mustard plasters, cantharides blisters, mezereum, setons, issues, tartar-emetic ointment, moxa, actual cautery, acupuncture,..

It was evidently no rational principle, but merely imitation, with the view of making practice easy, that seduced the old school into those unhelpful and injurious indirect modes of treatment, the derivative as well as the counter-irritant; that led them to this inefficacious, debilitating and hurtful practice of apparently ameliorating diseases for a short time, or removing them in such a manner that another and a worse disease was roused up to occupy the place of the first.

Such a destructive plan cannot certainly be termed curing. But this was a great error. The internal operations in diseases are manifested only by the visible changes, the sufferings and the symptoms, whereby alone our life betrays the inward disturbance; so that in no given case can we ascertain which of the the morbid symptoms are caused by the primary action of the morbific agent, which by the reaction of the vital force for its own relief.

Both are inextricably mixed up together before our eyes, and only present to us an outwardly reflected picture of the entire internal malady, for the fruitless efforts of unassisted vitality to terminate the sufferings are themselves sufferings of the whole organism. Hence, even in those evacuations termed crises, which nature generally produces at the termination of diseases which run a rapid course, there is frequently more of suffering than of efficacious relief.

What the vital force does in these so-called crises, and how it does it, remains a mystery to us, like all the internal operations of the organic vital economy. One thing, however, is certain, that in all these efforts more or less of the affected parts are sacrificed and destroyed in order to save the rest.

These self-aiding operations of the vital force for the removal of an acute disease, performed only in obedience to the laws of organic life and not guided by the reflection of an intellect, are mostly but a species of allopathy; in order to relieve the primarily affected organ by a crisis, an increased, often violent, activity is excited in the excretory organs, to draw away the disease from the former to the latter; there ensue vomitings, purgings, diuresis, diaphoresis, abscesses,..

The great weakness of the parts which had been exposed to the disease, and even of the whole body, the emaciation,.. Anything but a cure is effected. Who would ever call that a victory if, in place of attacking the enemy in front in a hand-to-hand fight, and by his destruction terminating at once his hostile assaults, we should, in a cowardly manner and behind his back, lay an embargo on everything, cut off his supplies, burn down everything for a great way round him?

By so doing we would at length deprive him of all courage to resist, but our object is not gained, the enemy is far from being destroyed, he is still there, and when he can again procure provisions and supplies, he once more rears his head, more exasperated than before the enemy, I repeat, is far from being destroyed, but the poor innocent country is so completely ruined that it will be long before it can recover itself.

In like manner acts allopathy in chronic diseases, when, by its indirect attacks on innocent parts at a distance from the seat of the disease, instead of effecting a cure, it destroys the organism. Such is the result of its hurtful operations! There is nothing that can merit the honourable name of cure in this revolutionary treatment, which has no direct, immediate, pathological relation to the tissues primarily affected.

Often, indeed, without these serious attacks on the rest of the organism, would the acute disease have ceased of itself, sooner most likely, with fewer subsequent sufferings and less sacrifice of strength. But neither the mode of operation of the crude natural forces, not the allopathic copy of that, can for a moment be compared to the dynamic homoeopathic treatment, which sustains the strength, while it extinguishes the disease in a direct and rapid manner.

They suspend, for a few days only, some troublesome symptom or other, which, however, returns when the system has become accustomed to the distant irritation, and the disease recurs worse than before, because by the antagonistic pains 2 and the injudicious evacuations the vital powers have been depressed. Or does anyone imagine in this nineteenth century, that they serve as an outlet for the escape of the materia peccans?

It almost appears as if this were the case! Whilst most physicians of the old school, imitating in a general manner the efforts of crude, unaided nature for its own relief, carried out in their practice these derivations of merely hypothetical utility, just as they judged expedient guided by some imaginary indication ; others, aiming at a higher object, undertook designedly to promote the efforts of the vital force to aid itself by evacuations and antagonistic metastases, as seen in diseases, and by way of lending it a helping hand, to increase still more these derivations and evacuations; and they believed that by this hurtful procedure they were acting duce natura, and might justly claim the title of minister naturae.

But they did not perceive that all these evacuations and excretions pseudo-crises produced by nature when left to herself were, in chronic diseases, only palliative, transient alleviations, which, far from contributing to a real cure, on the contrary, rather aggravate the original, internal dyscrasia, by the waste of strength and juices they occasioned. No one ever saw a chronic patient recover his health permanently by such efforts of crude nature, not any chronic disease cured by such evacuations effected by the organism.

In like manner, on the occurrence of symptoms excited by an internal chronic affection that threaten to destroy life, when nature, left to its own resources, cannot help herself in any other way than by the production of external local symptoms, in order to avert the danger from parts indispensable to life and direct it to tissues of less vital importance metastasis , these operations of the energetic but unitelligent, unreasoning and improvident vital force conduce to anything but genuine relief or recovery; they only silence in a palliative manner, for a short time, the dangerous internal affection, at the cost of a large portion of the humours and of the strength, without diminishing the original disease by a hair's breadth; they can, at the most, only retard the fatal termination which is inevitable without true homoeopathic treatment.

The allopathy of the old school not only greatly overrated these efforts of the crude automatic power of nature, but completely misjudged them, falsely considered them to be truly curative, and endeavoured to increase and promote them, vainly imagining that thereby they might perhaps succeed in annihilating and radically curing the whole disease. In almost all cases in which the diseased vital force endeavoured to subdue the violence of a dangerous internal malady by evacuating blood by means of vomiting, coughing,..

The vital force, in order to relieve the internal malady, sometimes produces indolent enlargements of the external glands, and he thinks to forward the intentions of nature, in his assumed character of her servant, when, by the use of all sorts of hearing embrocations and plasters, he causes them to inflame, so that, when the abscess is ripe, he may incise it and let out the bad morbific matter?

Experience has shown, hundreds of times, that lasting evil almost invariably results from such a plan. And having often noticed slight amelioration of the severe symptoms of chronic diseases to result from spontaneous night sweats or frequent liquid stools, he imagines himself bound to obey these hints of nature duce natura , and to promote them, by instituting and maintaining a complete course of sweating treatment or by the employment of so-called gentle laxatives for years, in order to promote and increase these efforts of nature of the vital force of the unintelligent organism , which he thinks tend to the cure of the whole chronic affection, and thus to free the patient more speedily and certainly from his disease the matter of his disease?

With tongue and with pen the old school physician brags that he is a rational practitioner, and that he investigates the cause of the disease so as always to make radical cures; but behold, his treatment is directed, in these cases, against a single symptom only, and always with injurious consequences to his patient.

For even the incomplete amelioration resulting from the natural derivations and crises cannot be obtained in a similar manner by allopathy; with all its endeavours it cannot procure anything like even that pitiful relief the vital force left to itself is able to afford. It has been attempted to produce, by means of scarifying instruments, a bleeding at the nose, in imitation of that sometimes occuring naturally, in order to mitigate, for example, the attacks of a chronic headache.

But this means a large quantity of blood could be made to flow from the nostrils and weaken the patient, but the relief afforded was either nil, or much less than the instinctive vital force would procure at another time, when, of its own accord, it would cause but a few drops to flow.

But the vital force, which of itself can only act according to the physical constitution of our organism, and is not guided by reason, knowledge and reflection, was not given to man to be regarded as the best possible curative agent to restore those lamentable deviations from health to the normal condition, and still less that physicians should slavishly imitate its imperfect morbid efforts to free itself from disease , and that with operations incontestably more inappropriate and severe than its own, and thereby conveniently spare themselves the expenditure of reasoning, reflection and judgment requisite for the discovery and for the practice noblest of human arts-the true healing art- while they allege their bad copy of the spontaneous efforts of doubtful utility made by the crude natural force for its relief, to the healing art, the rational healing art!

What sensible man would imitate the efforts of the organism for its own preservation? These efforts are in reality the disease itself, and the morbidly affected vital force is the producer of the visible disease! It must, therefore, necessarily follow that all artificial imitation, and likewise the suppression of these efforts, must either increase the disease or render it dangerous by their suppression, and both of these allopathy does; these are its pernicious operations which it alleges to be the healing art, the rational healing art!

Homoeopathy teaches us how to effect this. Under the methods of treatment of the old school I have just detailed, no small number of patients certainly got rid of their diseases, but not of those of a chronic non-venereal character; only such as were acute and unattended with danger; and even these they were only freed from by such circuitous and tedious ways, and often so incompletely, that the results of the treatment could never be termed cures effected by a gentle art.

These methods were, consequently, indirect, and attended with loss of strength and humours, so much so that in patients so treated the greatest and most important measures for the complete removal of the disease and for the restoration of the lost strength an humours remained to be performed by Nature herself by the life-preserving power which, besides the removal of the natural acute disease, had also to combat the effects of improper treatment, and thus it was able, in cases unattended by danger, gradually to restore the normal relation of the functions by means of its own energy, but often in a tedious, imperfect and painful manner.

It remains a very doubtful question whether the natural process of recovery in acute diseases is really at all shortened or facilitated by this interference of the old school, as the latter cannot act otherwise that the vital force, namely, indirectly; but its derivative and counterirritant treatment is much more injurious and much more debilitating. The old school has yet another method of treatment, which is termed the stimulating and strengthening system 1 by excitantia, nervina, tonica, confortantia, roborantia.

It is astonishing how it can boast of this method. It is, properly speaking, enantiopathic, and I shall again refer to it in the text of the Organon Has it ever succeeded in removing the physical weakness so often engendered and kept up or increased by a chronic disease with its prescriptions of etheric Rhine-wine or fiery Tokay? The strength gradually sank under this treatment, and all the lower, the greater the quantity of wine the patient was persuaded to drink, because the source of the weakness, the chronic disease, was not cured by it, because artificial stimulation is followed by relaxation in the reaction of the vital force.

Or did its cinchona bark, or its amara, so misunderstood, so multifarious in their modes of action, and productive of quite different kinds of injury, give strength in these frequently occuring cases? Did not these vegetable substances, said to be tonic and strengthening under all circumstances, as also the preparations of iron, often add to the old disease new sufferings, by virtue of their peculiar pathogenetic effects, without relieving the weakness proceeding from an unknown disease of long standing?

Has any one ever succeeded in diminishing in the very least the duration of the incipient paralysis of an arm or a leg, so often arising from a chronic dyscrasia, by means of the so- called unguenta nervina or any other spirituous of balsamic embrocations, without curing the dyscrasia itself.

Or have electric or galvanic shocks ever been attended with any other result in such cases, than a gradually increasing, and finally absolute, paralysis, and extinction of all muscular and nervous irritability in the affected limbs? In order to produce the same result he had to make them stronger; until these stronger shocks had no effect; the very strongest would then at first excite the patients'hearing for a short time, but at length left them quite deaf. Did not the renowned excitantia and aphrodisiaca, ambergris, lacerta scincus, cantharides tincture, truffles, cardamoms, cinnamon and vanilla invariably bring about complete impotence when used for the purpose of restoring the gradually declining sexual power which always depended on an unobserved chronic miasm?

The title good that the excitantia and roborantia did for recovery from acute diseases treated according to the old method was a thousand times outweighed by their ill effects in chronic maladies. They thus certainly produce great alterations, but invariably such as are not beneficial, and they always utterly ruin the health by their improper administration of this excessively injurious metal.

When they prescribe, in large doses, cinchona bark which, as a homoeopathic febrifuge, is only specific in true marsh ague, not accompanied with psora , for all epidemic intermittent fevers, which are often distributed over large tracts of country, the old school practitioners palpably manifest their stupidity, for these diseases assume a different character almost every year and hence demand for their cure, almost always, a different homoeopathic remedy, by means of one or a few very small doses of which they may always be radically cured in a few days.

Now, because these epidemic fevers have periodical attacks typus and the adherents of the old school see nothing in all intermittent fevers but their typus periodicity , and neither know nor care to know any other febrifuge but cinchona, these routine practitioners imagine if they can but suppress the typus of the epidemic intermittent fever with enormous doses of cinchona and its costly alkaloid, quinine an event which the unintelligent, but, in this instance, more sensible vital force endeavours to prevent often for months , that they have cured this epidemic ague.

But the deluded patient, after such a suppression of the periodicity typus of his fever, invariably becomes worse than he was during the fever itself with swallow complexion, dyspnoea, constriction in the hypochondria, disordered bowels, unhealthy appetite, broken sleep, feeble and desponding, often with great swelling of the legs, of the abdomen and even of the face and hands, he creeps out of the hospital, dismissed as cured, and long years of homoeopathic treatment are not infrequently required, merely to rescue from death, let alone to cure and restore to health, such a profoundly injured cured?

The old school is happy when it can convert the dull stupor that occurs in typhus fevers, by means of valerian, which in this case acts antipathically, into a kind of liveliness of a few hours' duration; but as this does not continue, and to force a repetition of the animation ever increasing doses of valerian are requisite, it is not long before the largest doses cease to have the desired effect.

But as this palliative is only stimulant in its primary action, in its after effects the vital force is paralysed, and such a patient is certain of a speedy death from this rational treatment of the old school; none can escape. And yet the adherents of this routine art could not perceive that by these proceedings they most certainly killed their patients; they ascribed the death to the malignancy of the disease. True it is that this dreadful remedy, which is in such cases employed enantiopathically, strikingly diminishes the frequency of the quick, irritated pulse, and greatly reduces the number of the arterial pulsations, for a few hours after the first dose; but the pulse soon becomes more rapid than before.

In order again to diminish in some degree its frequency the dose is increased, and it has the effect, but for a still shorter period, until even these and still larger palliative doses cease to reduce the pulse, which at length, in the secondary action of the foxglove which can no longer be restrained, becomes much more rapid than it was before the use of this drug, it then becomes uncountable; sleep, appetite and strength are lost; death is imminent; not one of the patients so treated escapes alive, unless to be a prey to incurable insanity!

Homoopathie, p. Permanently removed? Poor Hufeland! Such was the treatment pursued by the allopathist. The patients, therefore, were obliged to yield to the sad necessity, because they could obtain no better aid from other allopathists, who had gained their knowledge from the same deceitful books. As the fundamental cause of chronic non-venereal disease, together with the remedies for them, remained unknown to these practitioners, who vainly boasted of their causal medication and of their diagnosis being directed to the investigation of the genesis of diseases; 2 how could they hope to cure the immense numbers of chronic diseases by their indirect treatments, which were but hurtful imitations of the unintelligent vital force for its own relief, that never were intended to be models for practice?

For since, as is well known, previous to the appearance of my book Chronic diseases k, the - years- old allopathy knew nothing about the source of most chronic diseases psora , must it not have attributed a false source genesis to such maladies? But from such general indications really serviceable medicines could not be discovered, most assuredly not in the materia medica of the old school, which, as I have elsewhere shown, 3 is founded mainly on conjecture and false deductions ab usu in morbis, mixed up with falsehood and fraud.

All this was pure ostentation. Thus Marcus Herz in Hufeland's Journal, 11, p. Thus we seldom excite perspiration, purify the blood? To be sure, we learnedly institute certain grades of rank among the remedies in our formulas; on the one to which we particularly commission the action, we confer the title of base basis , the others we call helpers, supporters adjuvantia , correctives corrigentia ,.. But this classification is evidently almost entirely arbitrary.

The helpers and supporters have just as much part in the whole action as the chief ingredient, although, from want of a standard of measurement, we are unable to determine the degree of their participation in the result. In like manner the influence of the correctives on the powers of the other ingredients cannot be quite indifferent; they must increase or diminish them, or give them quite another direction; and hence we must always regard the salutary? In fact, our knowledge of what is essential to be known respecting all our remedies, as also respecting the perhaps hundredfold relationship among each other into which they enter when combined, is far too little to be relied upon to enable us to tell with certainty the degree and extent of the action of a substance, seemingly ever so unimportant, when introduced into the human body in combination with other substances".

For truth is co-eternal with the all-wise, benevolent Deity. It may long escape the observation of man, until the time foreordained by Providence arrives, when its rays shall irresistibly break through the clouds of prejudice and usher in the dawn of a day which shall shine with a bright and inextinguishable light for the weal of the human race.

The result naturally belies every expectation that had been formed. There certainly ensue changes and results, but none of an appropriate character, none beneficial, all injurious, destructive! I should like to see any one who would call the purblind inroads of such prescriptions on the diseased human body a cure!

It is only by guiding what still remains of the vital principle in the patient to the proper performance of its functions, by means of a suitable medicine, that a cure can be expected, but not by enervating the body to death, secundum artem; and yet the old school knows not what else to do with patients suffering from chronic diseases, than to attack the sufferers with drugs that do nothing but torture them, waste their strength and fluids, and shorten their lives!

Can it be said to save whilst it destroys? Does it deserve any other name than of a mischievous non-healing art? It acts, lege artis, in the most inappropriate manner, and it does it would almost seem purposely alloia that is to say, the very opposite of what it should do. Can it be commended? In recent times the old school practitioners have quite surpassed themselves in their cruelty towards their sick fellow-creatures, and in the unsuitableness of their operations, as every unprejudiced observer must admit, and as even physicians of their own school have been forced, by the pricks of their conscience like Kruger Hansen , to confess before the world.

It was high time that he should permit the discovery of homoeopathy. Hitherto no one has ever taught this homoeopathic mode of cure, no one has carried it out in practice. But if the truth is only to be found in this method, as I can prove it to be, we might expect that, even though it remained unperceived for thousands of years, distinct traces of it would yet be discovered in every age.

But this is observed much more strikingly in cases where physicians sometimes affected a rapid cure with one simple medicinal substance, contrary to the usual custom, that admitted of none but mixtures of medicines in the form of a prescription. They prescribed a medicine the very reverse of that which they should have employed according to the traditional therapeutics, and it was only in consequence of so doing that the patients were rapidly cured. To hard, acute swellings, in which the excessive violence of the inflammation prevents their suppuration and causes intolerable pains, they apply very warm poultices, frequently renewed, and behold!

In this case they imagine that the hardness has been softened by the moisture of the poultice, whereas it is chiefly by the greater heat of the poultices that the excess of inflammation has been homoeopathically subdued, and the rapid suppuration been enabled to take place. Yve's salve, the chief ingredient of which is red oxide of mercury, which can produce inflammation of the eyes, if anything can? Is it hard to see that they here act homoeopathically? With the pimpernal root, which causes great secretion of mucus in the bronchia and fauces, they successfully combated the so-called mucous angina and quelled some kinds of metrorrhagia with the leaves of savine, which can itself cause metrorrhagia, without perceiving the homoeopathic curative law.

The answer we obtain to this question is of the utmost significance. They were never performed in any other manner than by means of medicines of homoeopathic power, that is to say, capable of producing a disease similar to the morbid state sought to be cured; the cures were effected rapidly and permanently by medicines, the medical prescribers of which made use of them as it were by accident, and even in opposition to the doctrines of all previous systems and therapeutics often without rightly knowing what they were doing and why they did it , and thus, against their will, they practically confirmed the necessity of the only therapeutic law, which, despite the many facts and innumerable hints that pointed to it, non physicians of past epochs have exerted themselves to discover, blinded as they all have been by medical prejudices.

For even the domestic practice of the non-medical classes of the community endowed with sound observant faculties has many times proved this mode of treatment to be the surest, the most radical and the least fallacious in practice. In recent cases of frost-bitten limbs frozen sour crout is applied or frictions of snow are used. Lux founds his so-called mode of cure by identicals and idem, which he calls Isopathy, which some eccentric- minded persons have already adopted as the non plus ultra of a therapeutic method, without knowing how they could carry it out.

But if we examine these instances attentively we find that they do not bear out these views. The purely physical powers differ in the nature of their action on the living organism from those of a dynamic medicinal kind. Heat or cold of the air that surrounds us, or of the water, or of our food and drink occasion as heat and cold of themselves no absolute injury to a healthy body; heat and cold are in their alternations essential to the maintenance of healthy life, consequently they are not of themselves medicine.

Heat and cold, therefore, act as curative agents in affections of the body, not by virtue of their essential nature not, therefore, as cold and heat per se, not as things hurtful in themselves, as are the drugs, rhubarb, china,.. If, then, cold or heat be serviceable in bodily ailments like frost- bites or burns, they are so solely on account of their degree of temperature, just as they only indict injury on the healthy body by their extreme degrees of temperature.

In like manner, a hand scalded with boiling water would not be cured isopathically by the application of boiling water, but only by a somewhat lower temperature, as, for, example, by holding it in a vessel containing a fluid heated to , which becomes every minute less hot, and finally descends to the temperature of the room, whereupon the scalded part is restored by homoeopathy. Water in the act of freezing cannot draw cut the frest isopathically from potatoes and apples, but this is effected by water only near the freezing-point.

So, to give another example from physical action, the injury resulting from a blow on the forehead with a hard substance a painful lump is soon diminished in pain and swelling by pressing on the spot for a considerable time with the ball of the thumb, strongly at first, and then gradually less forcibly, homoeopathically, but not by an equally hard blow with an equally hard body, which would increase the evil isopathically.

What are called sufferings from a chill are only nominally connected with cold, and often arise, in the bodies of those predisposed to them, even from a draught of wind which was not at ali cold. Moreover, the manifold effects of a cold bath on the living organism, in health and disease, cannot be reduced to such a simple formula as to warrant the construction of a system of such pretentions!

That serpents' bites, as is there stated, are most certainly cured by portions of the serpents, must remain a mere fable of a former age, until such an improbable assertion is authenticated by indubitable observations and experiences, which it certainly never will be. That, in fine, the saliva of a mad dog given to a patient labouring under hydrophobia in Russia , is said to have cured him that "is said" would not seduce any conscientious physician to imitate such a hazardous experiment, or to construct a so-called isopathic system, so dangerous and so highly improbable in its extended application, as has been done not by the modest author of the pamphlet entitled The Isopathy of Contagions, Leipzic:Kollmann, but by its eccentric supporters, especially Dr.

Gross v. John Hunter On the blood, Inflammation,.. Other intelligent non-medical persons, as, for example, the manufacturers of lackered ware, apply to a part scalded with the hot varnish a substance that causes a similar burning sensation, such as strong heated spirits of wine, 1 or oil of turpentine, 2 and by that means cure themselves in the course of a few hours, whereas cooling salves, as they are well aware, would not effect a cure in as many months, and cold water 3 would but make matters worse.

Benjamin Bell, too System of Surgery, Grd edit. He says:"One of the best applications to every burn of this kind is strong brandy or any other ardent spirit: it seems to induce a momentary additional pain see below, , but this soon subsides, and is succeeded by an agreeable soothing sensation.

It proves most effectual when the parts can be kept immersed in it; but where this cannot be done, they should be kept constantly moist with pieces of old linen soaked in spirits. And all experience confirms this in a most astonishing manner. No treatment can be more homoeopathic than this nor is any more efficacious. The estimable and experienced Heister Institut. But the amazing superiority of the application to burns of these remedies, which possess the power of exciting burning sensation and heat and are consequently homoeopathic , over palliative refrigerant remedies, is most incontestably shown by pure experimentation, in which the two opposite methods of treatment are employed for the sake of comparison, in burns of equal intensity in the same body.

Thus Benjamin Bell in Kuhn's Phys. In half an hour the first arm was well, but the other continued to be painful for six hours longer; when it was withdrawn one instant from the water she experienced much greater pain in it, and it required a much longer time than the first for its cure. John Anderson Kentish, op. In the course of seven hours her face looked much better and the pain was relieved.

She had frequently renewed the cold water for the arm, but whenever she withdrew it she complained of much pain, and, in truth, the inflammation in it had increased. The following morning I found that she had had during the night great pain in the arm; the inflammation had extended above the elbow; several large blisters had risen, and thick eschars had formed on the arm and hand; a warm poultice was then applied.

Who can fail to perceive in this instance the infinite superiority of the homoeopathic treatment by means of remedies of similar action, over the wretched treatment by opposites contraria contrariis of the antiquated ordinary school of medicine! Fabricius of Hilden, also De Combustion libellus, Basil. There have occasionally been physicians who vaguely surmised that medicines cure analogous morbid states by the power they possess of producing analogous morbid symptoms.

Thus the author of the book: peri topon kat anthropon 1 which is among the writings attributed to Hippocrates, has the following remarkable words: dia ta dmoia nousos ginetai, kai dia ta dmoia prosferomena ek noseunton ugiainantai, -dia to emeein emetos pauetai. Later physicians have also felt and expressed the truth of the homoeopathic method of cure. Thus, for instance, Boulduc 2 perceived that the purgative property of rhubarb was the cause of its power to allay diarrhoea.

O5 1 Memoirs de l'Academie Royale, Detharding 3 a guessed that the infusion of senna leaves relieved colic in adults by virtue of its analogous action in causing colic in healthy persons. O5 1 Eph. Bertholon 4 confesses that in diseases electricity diminishes and removes pain very similar to that which itself produces. Thoury 5 testifies that positive electricity possesses the power of quickening the pulse, but when that is already morbidly accelerated it diminishes its frequency.

Von Stoerk 6 makes the following suggestion: "If stramonium disorders the mind and produces mania in healthy persons, ought we not to try if in cases of insanity it cannot restore reason by producing a revolution in the ideas? But a Danish army physician, of the same of Stahl, 7 has expressed his conviction on this point in the most unequivocal terms. Hammelii, Commentatio de Arthritide tam tartarea, quam scorbutica, seu podagra et scorbuto, Budingae, , viii, pp.

How near was the great truth sometimes of being apprehended! But it was dismissed with a mere passing thought, and thus the indispensable change of the antiquated medical treatment of disease, of the improper therapeutic system hitherto in vogue, into a real, true, and certain healing art, remained to be accomplished in our own times.

Of such learned reveries to which the name of theoretic medicine is given, and for which special professorships are instituted we have had quite enough, and it is now high time that all who call themselves physicians should at length cease to deceive suffering man kind with mere talk, and begin now, instead, for once to act, that is, really to help and to cure.

In these investigations, the ascertainable physical constitution of the patient and intellectual character, his occupation, mode of living and habits, his social and domestic relations, his age, sexual function,.. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its whole extent, that is, together they form the true and only conceivable portrait of the disease.

Is not, then, that which is cognizable by the senses in diseases through the phenomena it displays, the disease itself in the eyes of the physician, since he never can see the spiritual being that produces the disease, the vital force? What else will the old school search for in the hidden interior of the organism, as a prima causa morbi whilst they reject as an object of cure and contemptuously despise the sensible and manifest representation of the disease, the symptoms, that so plainly address themselves to us?

What else do they wish to cure in diseases, but these? He will remove from the room strong-smelling flowers, which have a tendency to cause syncope and hysterical sufferings; extract from the cornea the foreign body that excites inflammation of the eye; loosen the over-tight bandage on a wounded limb that threatens to cause mortification, and apply a more suitable one, lay bare and put a ligature on the wounded artery that produces fainting; endeavour to promote the expulsion by vomiting of belladonna berries,..

A single one of the symptoms present is no more the disease itself than a single foot is the man himself. This procedure was so much the more reprehensible, that such a single symptom was only treated by a antagonistic remedy therefore only in an enantiopathic and palliative manner , whereby, after a slight alleviation, it was subsequently only rendered all the worse.

This he maintains partly from mortification at the progress made by homoeopathy to the benefit of mankind, partly because he still holds thoroughly material notions respecting disease, which he is still unable tor egard as a state of being of the organism wherein it is dynamically altered by the morbidly deranged vital force, as an altered state of health, but he views the disease as a something material, which, after the cure is completed, may still remain lurking in some corner in the interior of the body, in order, some day during the most vigorous health, to burst forth at its pleasure with its material presence!

So dreadful is still the blindness of the old pathology! No wonder that it could only produce a system of therapeutics which is solely occupied with scouring out the poor patient. Our earth, by virtue of a hidden invisible energy, carries the moon around her in twenty-eight days and several hours, and the moon alternately, in definite fixed hours deducting certain differences which occur with the full and the new moon raises our northern seas to flood tide and again correspondingly lowers them to ebb.

Apparently this takes place not through material agencies, not through mechanical contrivances, as are used for products of human labor; and so we see numerous other events about us as results of the action of one substance on another substance without being able to recognize a sensible connection between cause and effect.

He calls such effects dynamic, virtual, that is, such as result from absolute, specific, pure energy and action of the one substance upon the other substance. For instance, the dynamic effect of the sick-making influences upon healthy man as well as the dynamic energy of the medicines upon the principle of life in the restoration of health is nothing else than infection and so not in any way material, not in any way mechanical. Just as the energy of a magnet attracting a piece of iron or steel is not material, not mechanical.

One sees that the piece of iron is attracted by one pole of the magnet, but how it is done is not seen. This invisible energy of the magnet does not require mechanical material auxiliary means, hook or lever, to attract the iron. The magnet draws to itself and this acts upon the piece of iron or upon a steel needle by means of a purely immaterial, invisible, conceptual, inherent energy, that is, dynamically, and communicates to the steel needle the magnetic energy equally invisibly dynamically.

The steel needle becomes itself magnetic, even at a distance when the magnet does not touch it, and magnetizes other steel needles with the same magnetic property dynamically with which it had been endowed previously by the magnetic rod, just as a child with smallpox or measles, communicates to a near, untouched healthy child in an invisible manner dynamically the small-pox or measles, that is, infects it at a distance without anything material from the infective child going or capable of going to the one to be infected.

A purely specific, conceptual influence communicated to the near child smallpox or measles in the same way as the magnet communicated to the near needle the magnetic property. In a similar way, the effect of medicines upon living man is to be judged. Substances, which are used as medicines, are medicines only in so far as they possess each its own specific energy to alter the well-being of man through dynamic, conceptual influence, by means of the living sensory fibre, upon the conceptual, controlling principle of life.

The medicinal property of those material substances which we call medicines proper, relates only to their energy to call out alterations in the well- being of animal life. Only upon this conceptual principle of life, depends their medicinal health altering, conceptual dynamic influence.

Just as the nearness of a magnetic pole can communicate only magnetic energy to the steel namely, by a kind of infection but cannot communicate other properties for instance, more hardness or ductility, etc. And thus every special medicinal substance alters through a kind of infection, that well-being of man in a peculiar manner exclusively its own and not in a manner peculiar to another medicine, as certainly as the nearness of the child ill with small-pox will communicate to a healthy child only small-pox and not measles.

These medicines act upon our well-being wholly without communication of material parts of the medicinal substances, thus dynamically, as if through infection. Far more healing energy is expressed in a case in point by the smallest dose of the best dynamized medicines, in which there can be, according to calculation, only so little of material substance that its minuteness cannot be thought and conveived by the best arithmetical mind, than by large doses of the same medicine in substance.

That smallest dose can therefore contain almost entirely only the pure, freely-developed, conceptual medicinal energy, and brings about only dynamically such great effects as can never be reached by the crude medicinal substance itself taken in large doses.

Is it then so utterly impossible for our age celebrated for its wealth in clear thinkers to think of dynamic energy as something non-corporeal, since we see daily phenomena which cannot be explained in any other manner? If one looks upon something nauseous and becomes inclined to vomit, did a material emetic come into his stomach which compels him to this anti-peristaltic movement?

Was it not solely the dynamic effect of the nauseating aspect upon his imagination? And if one raises his arm, does it occur through a material visible instrument? Is it not solely the conceptual dynamic energy of his will which raises it? But what would we think of His wisdom and goodness if He had shrouded in mysterious obscurity that which was to be cured in diseases as is asserted by the dominant school of medicine, which affects to possess a supernatural insight into the inner nature of things , and shut it up in the hidden interior, and thus rendered it impossible for man to know the malady accurately, consequently impossible for him to cure it?

But this injudicious system of therapeutics of the old school of medicine can no more be passed by unnoticed that can history omit to record the thousands of years of oppression to which mankind has been subjected under the irrational, despotic Governments. For, were it possessed of such a model ability, it would never have allowed the organism to get sick.

When made ill by noxious agents, our life principle cannot do anything else than express its depression caused by disturbance of the regularity of its life, by symptoms, by means of which the intelligent physician is asked for aid. If this is not given, it strives to save by increasing the ailment, especially through violent evacuations, no matter what this entails, often with the largest sacrifices or destruction of life itself. For purposes of cure, the morbidly depressed vital energy possesses so little ability worthy of imitation since all changes and symptoms produced by it in the organism are the disease itself.

What intelligent physician would want to imitate it with the intention to heal if he did not thereby sacrifice his patient? They always saw something in them, but knew not what it was they saw, and they got results, from the complex forces acting on an unknown object, that no human being but only a God could have unravelled - results from which nothing can be learned, no experience gained.

Fifty years'esperience of this sort is like fifty years of looking into a kaleidoscope filled with unknown coloured objects, and perpetually turning round; thousands of ever-changing figures and no accounting for them! How is it that in the early dawn the brilliant Jupiter vanishes from the gaze of the beholder? By a stronger very similar power acting on his optic nerve, the brightness of approaching day! With snuff, that affects the sense of smell in a similar but stronger manner!

No music, no sugared cake, which act on the nerves of other senses, can cure this olfactory disgust.

DRAGON AGE 2 GOLD XBOX

From Introduction of this book Over the course of a sixty-year career, from when he stopped practicing the medicine of his day, until he died in , Samuel Hahnemann developed the homeopathic mode of medical treatment, which was as different from the prevailing medical practice as day is to night. During his long professional career, Hahnemann condensed his precepts on the philosophy and practice of medicine and the maintenance of health into successive editions of the Organon of the Medical Art.

The first edition was published in , and the sixth and final edition was completed in , the year before he died. Hahnemann did not write the Organon only for medical practitioners, in fact, he prescribed the Organon to patients. The book itself is a remedy of the highest potency. Like other great works of art, it constantly reveals new marvels and mysteries, acting dynamically in relation to each reader, and acting differently with each reading.

Mine has been to adapt the translation in such a way as to make it as comprehensible and as accessible as possible. This small group including his contemporaries, Johann Goethe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge comprise the beginning of what may be referred to as a dynamic school of thought.

In addition, I have delineated the structure of the Organon by dividing it into chapters and sections, and I have interpreted the text in side-headings and editorial footnotes indicated with an asterisk. A glossary and index have also been added. The Glossary includes definitions of medical terms used in the Organon, as well as translation notes on specific words. The Index allows readers to use the Organon as a reference work. It also organizes information on certain topics. Steven Decker and I worked together to solve one of the prime difficulties in translating and adapting a text of such complexity as the Organon: the problem of consistency versus context.

At every turn, translators must choose between translating a particular word consistently throughout a text or translating it according to context. Previous translators have opted primarily for translation according to context. Steven and I approached this problem from different directions. Steven drew on a wide selection of English words to find the particular one that could span the various meanings of a given German word.

We then worked together to define key terms in the Glossary so that readers can fully understand the nuances to be associated with particular terms. In other words, through the Glossary definitions, we are giving readers the opportunity to assign the full meaning of a given German word to the English word being used to translate it. There is no word in English that immediately conveys both of these meanings to the reader.

Another frequently encountered problem in moving from one language to another is that different languages carry different ways of looking at something , conceptually dividing things into smaller or larger units. Where language may use several words, another may use on one.

German, however, has only one term Heil- that covers both healing and cure, and which can refer to anything that is remedial or therapeutic. As a result, readers will be able to better know and understand what Hahnemann wrote and what he meant. If one reads Hahnemann from a linear perspective, one misses half the story. Readers can come closer to seeing as Hahnemann saw and thinking as Hahnemann thought. When this pernicious practice has become a habit and one is rendered insensible to the admonitions of conscience, this becomes a very easy business indeed.

Even the most opposite and the most senseless modes of treatment find there defence, they authority let their disastrous effects speak ever so loudly against them. Now I shall consider only its exact opposite, the true healing art, discovered by me and now semewhat more perfected. Examples are given to prove that striking cures performed in former times were always due to remedies basically homoeopathic and found by the physician accidentally and contrary to the then prevailing methods of therapeutics.

It can easily convince every reflecting persons that the diseases of man are not caused by any substance, any acridity, that is to say, any disease-matter, but that they are solely spirit-like dynamic derangements of the spirit-like power the vital principle that animates the human body.

Homoeopathy knows that a cure can only take place by the reaction of the vital force against the rightly chosen remedy that has been ingested, and that the cure will be certain and rapid in proportion to the strength with the vital force still prevails in the patient. Thus homoeopathy is a perfectly simple system of medicine, remaining always fixed in its principles as in its practice, which, like the doctrine whereon it is based, if rightly apprehended will be found to be complete and therefore serviceable.

What is clearly pure in doctrine and practice should be self-evident, and all backward sliding to the pernicious routinism of the old school that is as much as its antithesis as night is to day, should cease to vaun itself with the honorable name of Homoeopathy. Haehl suggests February, , as the date according to a manuscript copy made by Madame Hahnemann. Contents a Introduction note. Notes 1, 2.

Note 2. As long as men have existed they have been liable, individually or collectively, to diseases from physical or moral causes. In a rude state of nature but few remedial agents were required, as the simple mode of living admitted of but few diseases; with the civilization of mankind in the state, on the contrary, the occasions of diseases and the necessity for medical aid increased in equal proportion.

But ever since that time soon after Hippocrates, therefore, for years men have occupied themselves with the treatment of the ever increasing multiplicity of diseases, who, led astray by their vanity, sought by reasoning and guessing to excogitate the mode of furnishing this aid. Innumerable and dissimilar ideas respecting the nature of diseases and their remedies sprang from so many dissimilar brains, and theoretical views these gave rise to the so- called systems, each of which was at variance with the rest self-contradictory.

Each of these subtile expositions at first threw the readers into stupefied amazement at the incomprehensible wisdom contained in it, and attracted to the system- monger a number of followers, who re-echoed his unnatural sophistry, to none of whom, however, was it of the slightest use in enabling them to cure better, until a new system, often diametrically opposed to the first, thrust that aside, and in its turn gained a short-lived renown.

None of them, however, was in consonance with nature and experience; they were mere theoretical webs, woven by cunning intellects out of pretended consequences, which could not be made use of in practice, in the treatment at the sick-bed, on account of their excessive subtilty and repugnance to nature, and only served for empty disputations. I pass it by unnoticed, as a despicable practice of the lowest class of ordinary practitioners.

I speak merely of the medical art as hitherto practised, which, pluming itself on its antiquity, imagines itself to possess a scientific character. The partisans of the old school of medicine flattered themselves that they could justly claim for it alone the title of "rational medicine, " because they alone sought for and strove to remove the cause of disease, and followed the method employed by nature in diseases.

Tolle causam! But they went no further than this empty exclamation. They only fancied that they could discover the cause of disease; they did not discover it, however, as it is not perceptible and not discoverable. How could they then, without deceiving themselves, consider this imperceptible internal essence as the object to be treated, and prescribe for it medicines whose curative powers were likewise generally unknown to them, and even give several such unknown medicines mixed together in what are termed prescriptions?

But this sublime problem, the discovery, namely, a priori of an internal invisible cause of disease, resolved itself, at least with the more astute physicians of the old school, into a search, under the guidance of the symptoms it is true, for what might be supposed to be the probable general character of the case of disease before them; 1 whether it was spasm, or debility, or paralysis, or fever, or inflammation, or induration, or obstruction of this or that part, or excess of blood plethora , deficiency or excess of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen or nitrogen in the juices, exaltation or depression of the functions of the arterial, venous or capillary system, change in the relative proportion of the factors of sensibility, irritability or reproduction?

Or, on the other hand, whence are the certain remedies for each of these pretended general characters to be derived? Those that would certainly be of benefit could be none other than the specific medicines, that is, those whose action is homogeneous 2 to the morbid irritation; whose employment, however, is denounced and forbidden 3 by the old school as highly injurious, because observation has shown that in consequence of the receptivity for homogeneous irritation being so highly increased in diseases, such medicines in the usual large doses are dangerous to life.

The old school never dreamt of smaller, and of extremely small doses. Accordingly no attempt was made to cure, in the direct the most natural way, by means of homogeneous, specific medicines; nor could it be done, as the effects of most of medicines were, and continued to remain, unknown , and even had they been known it would have been impossible to hit on the right medicine with such generalizing views as were entertained. The homogeneous excitant remedies, the specific homoeopathic medicines, however, had long previously been prohibited as of very injurious influence".

Hence they dreamed of effecting causal cures by endeavouring to remove these imaginary and presumed material causes of the disease. Hence their assiduous evacuation of the bile by vomiting in bilious fevers; 1 their emetics in cases of so-called stomach derangements; 2 their diligent purging away of the mucus, the lumbrici and the ascarides in children who are pale-faced And who suffer from ravenous appetite, bellyache, and enlarged abdomen; 3 their venesections in cases of haemorrhage; 4 and more especially all their varieties of blood-lettings, 5 their main remedy in inflammations, which they now, following the example of a well-known bloodthirsty Parisian physician as a flock of sheep follow the bell-wether even into the butcher's slaughter- house , imagine to encounter in almost every morbidly affected part of the body, and feel themselves bound to remove by the application of often a fatal number of leeches.

The adherents of the old school, moreover, believe that by putting a ligature on polypi, by cutting out, or artificially exciting suppuration by means of local irritants in indolent glandular swellings, by enucleating encysted tumours steatoma and meliceria by their operations for aneurysm and lacrimal and anal fistula, by removing with the knife scirrhous tumors of the breast, by amputating a limb affected with necrosis,..

But what is the result? The metastatic affections that sooner or later, but inevitably appear, caused by this mode of treatment but which they pretend are entirely new diseases , which are always worse than the original malady, sufficiently prove their error, and might and should open their eyes to the deeper-seated, immaterial nature of the disease, and its dynamic spiritual [' spirit-like ' in the Sixth Edition origin, which can only be removed by dynamic means. The metastatic affections that sooner or later, but inevitably appear, caused by this mode of treatment but which they pretend are entirely new diseases , which are always worse than the original malady, sufficiently prove their error, and might and should open their eyes to the deeper-seated, immaterial nature of the disease, and its dynamic spiritual [' spirit-like ' in the Sixth Edition] origin, which can only be removed by dynamic means.

Rau loc. This object was generally attained by tartar emetic, with or without ipecacuanha. Does the patient, however, immediately after this become well, brisk and cheerful? Oh no! Such a derangement of the stomach is usually of dynamic origin, caused by mental disturbance grief, fright, vexation , a chill, over- exertion of the mind or body immediately after eating, often after even a moderate meal.

Those two remedies are not suitable for removing this dynamic derangement, and just as little is the revolutionary vomiting they produce. If the patient, however, in place of taking such violent and always a hurtful evacuant drugs, smell only a single time at a globule the size of a mustard seed, moistened with highly diluted pulsatilla juice, whereby the derangement of his health in general and of his stomach in particular will certainly be removed, in two hours he is quite well and if the eructation recur once more, it consists of tasteless and inodorous air; the contents of the stomach cease to be vitiated, and at the next meal he has regained his full usual appetite; he is quite well and lively.

This is true causal medication; the former is only an imaginary one and has an injurious effect on the patient. Even a stomach overloaded with indigestible food never requires a medicinal emetic. In such a case nature is competent to rid herself of the excess in the best way through the oeosophagus, by means of nausea, sickness and spontaneous vomiting, assisted, it may be, by mechanical irritation of the palate and fauces, and by this means the accessory medicinal effects of the emetic drugs are avoided; a small quantity of coffee expedites the passage downwards of what remains in the stomach.

But if, after excessive overloading of the stomach, the irritability of the stomach is not sufficient to promote spontaneous vomiting, or is lost altogether so that the tendency thereto is extinguished, while there are at the same time great pains in the epigastrium, in such a paralyzed state of the stomach, a emetic medicine would only have the effect of producing a dangerous or fatal inflammation of the intestines; whereas a small quantity of strong infusion of coffee, frequently administered, would dynamically exalt the sunken irritability of the stomach, and put it in a condition to expel its contents, be they ever so great, either upwards or downwards.

So here also the pretended causal treatment is out of place. Even the acrid gastric acid, to eructations of which patients with chronic diseases are not infrequently subject, may be to-day violently evacuated by means of an emetic, with great suffering, and yet all in vain, for tomorrow or some days later it is replaced by similar acrid gastric acid, and then usually in larger quantities; whereas it goes away by itself when its dynamic cause is removed by a very small dose of a high dilution of sulphuric acid, or still better, if it is of frequent recurrence, by the employment of minutest doses of antipsoric remedies corresponding in similarity to the rest of the symptoms also.

And of a similar character are many of the pretended causal cures of the old-school physicians, whose main effort it is, by means of tedious operations, troublesome to themselves and injurious to their patients, to clear away the material product of the dynamic derangement; whereas if they perceived the dynamic source of the affection, and annihilated it and its products homoeopathically, they thereby effect a rational cure.

This they hold to be a rational mode of treatment, causal medication. Anyone who has felt the tranquil pulse of a man an hour before the occurrence of the rigor that always precedes an attack of acute pleurisy, will not be able to restrain his amazement if told two hours later, after the hot stage has commenced, that the enormous plethora present urgently requires repeated venesections, and will naturally inquire by what magic power could the pounds of blood that must now be drawn off have been conjured into the blood-vessels of this man within these two hours, which but two hours previously he had felt beating in such a tranquil manner?

Not a single drachm more of blood can now be circulating in those vessels than existed when he was in good health, not yet two hours ago! The palliative amelioration that at first ensues from the treatment is far from being crowned by a rapid and perfect cure; on the contrary, the weak and ailing state of the parts thus treated frequently also of the whole body , which always remains, sufficiently shows the error that is committed in attributing the local inflammation to a local plethora, and how sad are the consequences of such abstractions of blood; whereas this purely dynamic, apparently local, inflammatory irritation, can be rapidly and apparently local, inflammatory irritation, can be rapidly and permanently removed by an equally small dose of aconite, or, according to circumstances, of belladonna, and the whole disease annihilated and cured, without such injustifiable shedding of blood.

A favourite idea of the ordinary school of medicine, until recent would that I could not say the most recent! By means also of perpetual fly-blisters and the application of mezereum, they thought to draw away the bad humours and to cleanse the diseased body from all morbific matters but they only weakened it, so as generally to render it incurable, by all these senseless unnatural processes. Hence, in all the works on Materia Medica from Dioscorides down to the latest books on this subject, there is almost nothing said about the special peculiar action of individual medicines; but, besides on account of their supposed utility in various nosological names of diseases, it is merely stated whether they are diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant or emmenagogue, and more particularly whether they produce evacuation of the stomach and bowels upwards or downwards; because all the aspirations and efforts of the practitioner have ever been chiefly directed to cause the expulsion of a material morbific matter, and of sundry fictitious acridities, which it was imagined were the cause of diseases.

These were, however, all idle dreams, unfounded assumptions and hypotheses, cunningly devised for the convenience of therapeutics, as it was expected the easiest way of performing a cure would be to remove the material morbific matters si modo essent! The causes of our maladies cannot be material, since the least foreign material substance, 10 however mild it may appear to us, if introduced into our blood-vessels, is promptly ejected by the vital force, as though it were a poison; or when this does not happen, death ensues.

If even the minutest splinter penetrates a sensitive part of our organism, the vital principle everywhere present in our body never rests until it is removed by pain, fever, suppuration or gangrene. And can it be supposed that in a case of cutaneous disease of twenty years' standing, for instance, this indefatigably active vital principle will quietly endure the presence of such an injurious, foreign, material exanthematous substance, such as a herpetic, a scrofulous, a gouty acridity,..

Did any nosologist ever see with corporeal eyes such a morbific matter, to warrant him in speaking so confidently about it, and in founding in displaying to view the matter of gout or the poison of scrofula? Atmospheric air injected into the blood-vessels caused death. Vide J. Voigt, Magazin fur den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde, i, iii, p. Even the mildest fluids introduced into the veins endangered life.

Vide Autenrieth, Physiologie, ii,? Even when the application of a material substance to the skin, or to a wound, has propagated diseases by infection, who can prove what is so often Maintained in works on pathology that some material portion of this substance has penetrated into our fluids or been absorbed? The slightest breath of air emanating from the body of a person affected with smallpox with suffice to produce this horrible disease in a healthy child. What ponderable quantity of material substance could have been absorbed into the fluids, in order to develop, in the first of these instances, a tedious dyscrasia syphilis , which when uncured is only extinguished with the remotest period of life, with death; in the last, a disease smallpox accompanied by almost general suppuration, 3 and often rapidly fatal?

In these and all similar cases is it possible to entertain the idea of a material morbific matter being introduced into the blood? A letter written in the sick-room at a great distance has often communicated the same contagious disease to the person who read it. In this instance, can the notion of a material morbific matter having penetrated into the fluids be admitted?

But what need is there of all such proofs? How often has it happened that an irritating word has brought on a dangerous bilious fever; a superstitious prediction of death has caused the fatal catastrophe at the very time announced; the abrupt communication of sad or excessively joyful news has occasioned sudden death? In these cases, where is the material morbific principle that entered in substance into the body, there to produce and keep up the disease, and without the material expulsion and ejection of which a radical cure were impossible?

But by what all- potent and all- wise purifying draughts will you purge and cleanse the human fluids from this ever reproductive ferment, from this mass of imaginary morbific matter, and that so perfectly, that there shall not remain a particle of such morbific ferment, which, according to this hypothesis, must ever again, as at first transform and corrupt the fluids to new morbific matter? Were that so it would evidently be impossible to cure these diseases in your way!

The champions of this clumsy doctrine of morbific matters ought to be ashamed that they have so inconsiderately overlooked and failed to appreciate the spiritual nature of life, and the spiritual dynamic power of the exciting causes of diseases, a and that they have thereby degraded themselves into mere scavenger-doctors , who, in their efforts to expel from the diseased body morbific matters that never existed, in place of curing, destroy life.

Are, then, the foul, often disgusting excretions which occur in diseases the actual matter that produces and keeps them up? There is a semblance of necessity in the expulsion by purgatives of worms, in so-called vermicular diseases. But even this semblance is false. A few lumbrici may be found in some children; in many there exists ascarides. But the presence of these is always dependent on a general taint of the constitution and the former cured homoeopathically, which is most easily effected at this age, and none of the worms remain, and children cured in this manner are never troubled with them more; whereas after mere purgatives, even when combined With cina seeds, they soon reappear in quantities.

Yes, sometimes it is expelled; but at the cost of what after-sufferings, and with what danger to life! I should not like to have on my conscience the deaths of so many hundreds of human beings as have fallen sacrifices to the horribly violent purgatives directed against the tapeworm, or the many years of indisposition of those who have escaped being purged to death.

And how often does it happen that after all this health-and-life-destroying purgative treatment, frequently continued for several years, the animal is not expelled, or if so, that it is again produced! What if there is not the slightest necessity for all these violent, cruel, and dangerous efforts to expel and kill the worm? The various species of tapeworm are only found along with the psoric taint, and always disappear when that is cured.

But if the patient happen to be affected with an acute disease of any kind, then the contents of the bowels become intolerable to the animal; it twists about, comes in contact with, and irritates the sensitive walls of the intestines, causing a peculiar kind of spasmodic colic, which increases materially the sufferings of the patient. So also the foetus in the womb becomes restless, turns about and kicks, only when the mother is ill; but when she is well, it swims quiet in its proper fluid without causing her any suffering.

These matters the true physician regards as actual symptoms of the disease, and they aid him to discover the nature of the disease, and to form an accurate portrait of it, so as to enable him to cure it with a similar medicinal morbific agent. Hence they thought the best thing to do was to imitate nature, by also going to work in the treatment of most diseases in a circuitous manner like the diseased vital force when left to itself, and thus in an indirect manner, 1 by means of stronger heterogeneous irritants applied to organs remote from the seat of disease, and totally dissimilar to the affected tissues, they produce evacuations, and generally kept them up, in order to draw, as it were, the disease thither.

In this imitation of the self-aiding operation of nature, as some call it, they endeavoured to excite, by force, new symptoms in the tissues that are least diseased and best able to bear the medicinal disease, which should draw away 2 the primary disease under the semblance of crises and under the form of excretions, in order to admit of a gradual lysis by the curative powers of natures.

So that here too was the notion of a substance and a morbific matter, excessively subtile though it might be supposed to be! But in severe acute and in chronic diseases which constitute by far the greater portion of all human ailments, crude nature and the old school are equally powerless; in these, neither the vital force, with its self-aiding faculty, nor allopathy in imitation of it, can affect a lysis, but at the most a mere temporary truce, during which the enemy fortifies himself, in order, sooner or later, to recommence the attack with still greater violence.

To assist this derivative method they employed the allied treatment by counter-irritants; woolen garments to the bare skin, foot-baths, nauseants, inflicting on the stomach and bowels the pangs of hunger the hunger-treatment , substances to cause pain, inflammation, and suppuration in near or distant parts, as the application of horseradish, mustard plasters, cantharides blisters, mezereum, setons, issues, tartar-emetic ointment, moxa, actual cautery, acupuncture,..

It was evidently no rational principle, but merely imitation, with the view of making practice easy, that seduced the old school into those unhelpful and injurious indirect modes of treatment, the derivative as well as the counter-irritant; that led them to this inefficacious, debilitating and hurtful practice of apparently ameliorating diseases for a short time, or removing them in such a manner that another and a worse disease was roused up to occupy the place of the first.

Such a destructive plan cannot certainly be termed curing. But this was a great error. The internal operations in diseases are manifested only by the visible changes, the sufferings and the symptoms, whereby alone our life betrays the inward disturbance; so that in no given case can we ascertain which of the the morbid symptoms are caused by the primary action of the morbific agent, which by the reaction of the vital force for its own relief.

Both are inextricably mixed up together before our eyes, and only present to us an outwardly reflected picture of the entire internal malady, for the fruitless efforts of unassisted vitality to terminate the sufferings are themselves sufferings of the whole organism. Hence, even in those evacuations termed crises, which nature generally produces at the termination of diseases which run a rapid course, there is frequently more of suffering than of efficacious relief.

What the vital force does in these so-called crises, and how it does it, remains a mystery to us, like all the internal operations of the organic vital economy. One thing, however, is certain, that in all these efforts more or less of the affected parts are sacrificed and destroyed in order to save the rest. These self-aiding operations of the vital force for the removal of an acute disease, performed only in obedience to the laws of organic life and not guided by the reflection of an intellect, are mostly but a species of allopathy; in order to relieve the primarily affected organ by a crisis, an increased, often violent, activity is excited in the excretory organs, to draw away the disease from the former to the latter; there ensue vomitings, purgings, diuresis, diaphoresis, abscesses,..

The great weakness of the parts which had been exposed to the disease, and even of the whole body, the emaciation,.. Anything but a cure is effected. Who would ever call that a victory if, in place of attacking the enemy in front in a hand-to-hand fight, and by his destruction terminating at once his hostile assaults, we should, in a cowardly manner and behind his back, lay an embargo on everything, cut off his supplies, burn down everything for a great way round him?

By so doing we would at length deprive him of all courage to resist, but our object is not gained, the enemy is far from being destroyed, he is still there, and when he can again procure provisions and supplies, he once more rears his head, more exasperated than before the enemy, I repeat, is far from being destroyed, but the poor innocent country is so completely ruined that it will be long before it can recover itself. In like manner acts allopathy in chronic diseases, when, by its indirect attacks on innocent parts at a distance from the seat of the disease, instead of effecting a cure, it destroys the organism.

Such is the result of its hurtful operations! There is nothing that can merit the honourable name of cure in this revolutionary treatment, which has no direct, immediate, pathological relation to the tissues primarily affected. Often, indeed, without these serious attacks on the rest of the organism, would the acute disease have ceased of itself, sooner most likely, with fewer subsequent sufferings and less sacrifice of strength.

But neither the mode of operation of the crude natural forces, not the allopathic copy of that, can for a moment be compared to the dynamic homoeopathic treatment, which sustains the strength, while it extinguishes the disease in a direct and rapid manner. They suspend, for a few days only, some troublesome symptom or other, which, however, returns when the system has become accustomed to the distant irritation, and the disease recurs worse than before, because by the antagonistic pains 2 and the injudicious evacuations the vital powers have been depressed.

Or does anyone imagine in this nineteenth century, that they serve as an outlet for the escape of the materia peccans? It almost appears as if this were the case! Whilst most physicians of the old school, imitating in a general manner the efforts of crude, unaided nature for its own relief, carried out in their practice these derivations of merely hypothetical utility, just as they judged expedient guided by some imaginary indication ; others, aiming at a higher object, undertook designedly to promote the efforts of the vital force to aid itself by evacuations and antagonistic metastases, as seen in diseases, and by way of lending it a helping hand, to increase still more these derivations and evacuations; and they believed that by this hurtful procedure they were acting duce natura, and might justly claim the title of minister naturae.

But they did not perceive that all these evacuations and excretions pseudo-crises produced by nature when left to herself were, in chronic diseases, only palliative, transient alleviations, which, far from contributing to a real cure, on the contrary, rather aggravate the original, internal dyscrasia, by the waste of strength and juices they occasioned.

No one ever saw a chronic patient recover his health permanently by such efforts of crude nature, not any chronic disease cured by such evacuations effected by the organism. In like manner, on the occurrence of symptoms excited by an internal chronic affection that threaten to destroy life, when nature, left to its own resources, cannot help herself in any other way than by the production of external local symptoms, in order to avert the danger from parts indispensable to life and direct it to tissues of less vital importance metastasis , these operations of the energetic but unitelligent, unreasoning and improvident vital force conduce to anything but genuine relief or recovery; they only silence in a palliative manner, for a short time, the dangerous internal affection, at the cost of a large portion of the humours and of the strength, without diminishing the original disease by a hair's breadth; they can, at the most, only retard the fatal termination which is inevitable without true homoeopathic treatment.

The allopathy of the old school not only greatly overrated these efforts of the crude automatic power of nature, but completely misjudged them, falsely considered them to be truly curative, and endeavoured to increase and promote them, vainly imagining that thereby they might perhaps succeed in annihilating and radically curing the whole disease.

In almost all cases in which the diseased vital force endeavoured to subdue the violence of a dangerous internal malady by evacuating blood by means of vomiting, coughing,.. The vital force, in order to relieve the internal malady, sometimes produces indolent enlargements of the external glands, and he thinks to forward the intentions of nature, in his assumed character of her servant, when, by the use of all sorts of hearing embrocations and plasters, he causes them to inflame, so that, when the abscess is ripe, he may incise it and let out the bad morbific matter?

Experience has shown, hundreds of times, that lasting evil almost invariably results from such a plan. And having often noticed slight amelioration of the severe symptoms of chronic diseases to result from spontaneous night sweats or frequent liquid stools, he imagines himself bound to obey these hints of nature duce natura , and to promote them, by instituting and maintaining a complete course of sweating treatment or by the employment of so-called gentle laxatives for years, in order to promote and increase these efforts of nature of the vital force of the unintelligent organism , which he thinks tend to the cure of the whole chronic affection, and thus to free the patient more speedily and certainly from his disease the matter of his disease?

With tongue and with pen the old school physician brags that he is a rational practitioner, and that he investigates the cause of the disease so as always to make radical cures; but behold, his treatment is directed, in these cases, against a single symptom only, and always with injurious consequences to his patient.

For even the incomplete amelioration resulting from the natural derivations and crises cannot be obtained in a similar manner by allopathy; with all its endeavours it cannot procure anything like even that pitiful relief the vital force left to itself is able to afford.

It has been attempted to produce, by means of scarifying instruments, a bleeding at the nose, in imitation of that sometimes occuring naturally, in order to mitigate, for example, the attacks of a chronic headache. But this means a large quantity of blood could be made to flow from the nostrils and weaken the patient, but the relief afforded was either nil, or much less than the instinctive vital force would procure at another time, when, of its own accord, it would cause but a few drops to flow.

But the vital force, which of itself can only act according to the physical constitution of our organism, and is not guided by reason, knowledge and reflection, was not given to man to be regarded as the best possible curative agent to restore those lamentable deviations from health to the normal condition, and still less that physicians should slavishly imitate its imperfect morbid efforts to free itself from disease , and that with operations incontestably more inappropriate and severe than its own, and thereby conveniently spare themselves the expenditure of reasoning, reflection and judgment requisite for the discovery and for the practice noblest of human arts-the true healing art- while they allege their bad copy of the spontaneous efforts of doubtful utility made by the crude natural force for its relief, to the healing art, the rational healing art!

What sensible man would imitate the efforts of the organism for its own preservation? These efforts are in reality the disease itself, and the morbidly affected vital force is the producer of the visible disease! It must, therefore, necessarily follow that all artificial imitation, and likewise the suppression of these efforts, must either increase the disease or render it dangerous by their suppression, and both of these allopathy does; these are its pernicious operations which it alleges to be the healing art, the rational healing art!

Homoeopathy teaches us how to effect this. Under the methods of treatment of the old school I have just detailed, no small number of patients certainly got rid of their diseases, but not of those of a chronic non-venereal character; only such as were acute and unattended with danger; and even these they were only freed from by such circuitous and tedious ways, and often so incompletely, that the results of the treatment could never be termed cures effected by a gentle art.

These methods were, consequently, indirect, and attended with loss of strength and humours, so much so that in patients so treated the greatest and most important measures for the complete removal of the disease and for the restoration of the lost strength an humours remained to be performed by Nature herself by the life-preserving power which, besides the removal of the natural acute disease, had also to combat the effects of improper treatment, and thus it was able, in cases unattended by danger, gradually to restore the normal relation of the functions by means of its own energy, but often in a tedious, imperfect and painful manner.

It remains a very doubtful question whether the natural process of recovery in acute diseases is really at all shortened or facilitated by this interference of the old school, as the latter cannot act otherwise that the vital force, namely, indirectly; but its derivative and counterirritant treatment is much more injurious and much more debilitating. The old school has yet another method of treatment, which is termed the stimulating and strengthening system 1 by excitantia, nervina, tonica, confortantia, roborantia.

It is astonishing how it can boast of this method. It is, properly speaking, enantiopathic, and I shall again refer to it in the text of the Organon Has it ever succeeded in removing the physical weakness so often engendered and kept up or increased by a chronic disease with its prescriptions of etheric Rhine-wine or fiery Tokay?

The strength gradually sank under this treatment, and all the lower, the greater the quantity of wine the patient was persuaded to drink, because the source of the weakness, the chronic disease, was not cured by it, because artificial stimulation is followed by relaxation in the reaction of the vital force. Or did its cinchona bark, or its amara, so misunderstood, so multifarious in their modes of action, and productive of quite different kinds of injury, give strength in these frequently occuring cases?

Did not these vegetable substances, said to be tonic and strengthening under all circumstances, as also the preparations of iron, often add to the old disease new sufferings, by virtue of their peculiar pathogenetic effects, without relieving the weakness proceeding from an unknown disease of long standing? Has any one ever succeeded in diminishing in the very least the duration of the incipient paralysis of an arm or a leg, so often arising from a chronic dyscrasia, by means of the so- called unguenta nervina or any other spirituous of balsamic embrocations, without curing the dyscrasia itself.

Or have electric or galvanic shocks ever been attended with any other result in such cases, than a gradually increasing, and finally absolute, paralysis, and extinction of all muscular and nervous irritability in the affected limbs? In order to produce the same result he had to make them stronger; until these stronger shocks had no effect; the very strongest would then at first excite the patients'hearing for a short time, but at length left them quite deaf.

Did not the renowned excitantia and aphrodisiaca, ambergris, lacerta scincus, cantharides tincture, truffles, cardamoms, cinnamon and vanilla invariably bring about complete impotence when used for the purpose of restoring the gradually declining sexual power which always depended on an unobserved chronic miasm?

The title good that the excitantia and roborantia did for recovery from acute diseases treated according to the old method was a thousand times outweighed by their ill effects in chronic maladies. They thus certainly produce great alterations, but invariably such as are not beneficial, and they always utterly ruin the health by their improper administration of this excessively injurious metal.

When they prescribe, in large doses, cinchona bark which, as a homoeopathic febrifuge, is only specific in true marsh ague, not accompanied with psora , for all epidemic intermittent fevers, which are often distributed over large tracts of country, the old school practitioners palpably manifest their stupidity, for these diseases assume a different character almost every year and hence demand for their cure, almost always, a different homoeopathic remedy, by means of one or a few very small doses of which they may always be radically cured in a few days.

Now, because these epidemic fevers have periodical attacks typus and the adherents of the old school see nothing in all intermittent fevers but their typus periodicity , and neither know nor care to know any other febrifuge but cinchona, these routine practitioners imagine if they can but suppress the typus of the epidemic intermittent fever with enormous doses of cinchona and its costly alkaloid, quinine an event which the unintelligent, but, in this instance, more sensible vital force endeavours to prevent often for months , that they have cured this epidemic ague.

But the deluded patient, after such a suppression of the periodicity typus of his fever, invariably becomes worse than he was during the fever itself with swallow complexion, dyspnoea, constriction in the hypochondria, disordered bowels, unhealthy appetite, broken sleep, feeble and desponding, often with great swelling of the legs, of the abdomen and even of the face and hands, he creeps out of the hospital, dismissed as cured, and long years of homoeopathic treatment are not infrequently required, merely to rescue from death, let alone to cure and restore to health, such a profoundly injured cured?

The old school is happy when it can convert the dull stupor that occurs in typhus fevers, by means of valerian, which in this case acts antipathically, into a kind of liveliness of a few hours' duration; but as this does not continue, and to force a repetition of the animation ever increasing doses of valerian are requisite, it is not long before the largest doses cease to have the desired effect. But as this palliative is only stimulant in its primary action, in its after effects the vital force is paralysed, and such a patient is certain of a speedy death from this rational treatment of the old school; none can escape.

And yet the adherents of this routine art could not perceive that by these proceedings they most certainly killed their patients; they ascribed the death to the malignancy of the disease. True it is that this dreadful remedy, which is in such cases employed enantiopathically, strikingly diminishes the frequency of the quick, irritated pulse, and greatly reduces the number of the arterial pulsations, for a few hours after the first dose; but the pulse soon becomes more rapid than before.

In order again to diminish in some degree its frequency the dose is increased, and it has the effect, but for a still shorter period, until even these and still larger palliative doses cease to reduce the pulse, which at length, in the secondary action of the foxglove which can no longer be restrained, becomes much more rapid than it was before the use of this drug, it then becomes uncountable; sleep, appetite and strength are lost; death is imminent; not one of the patients so treated escapes alive, unless to be a prey to incurable insanity!

Homoopathie, p. Permanently removed? Poor Hufeland! Such was the treatment pursued by the allopathist. The patients, therefore, were obliged to yield to the sad necessity, because they could obtain no better aid from other allopathists, who had gained their knowledge from the same deceitful books. As the fundamental cause of chronic non-venereal disease, together with the remedies for them, remained unknown to these practitioners, who vainly boasted of their causal medication and of their diagnosis being directed to the investigation of the genesis of diseases; 2 how could they hope to cure the immense numbers of chronic diseases by their indirect treatments, which were but hurtful imitations of the unintelligent vital force for its own relief, that never were intended to be models for practice?

For since, as is well known, previous to the appearance of my book Chronic diseases k, the - years- old allopathy knew nothing about the source of most chronic diseases psora , must it not have attributed a false source genesis to such maladies? But from such general indications really serviceable medicines could not be discovered, most assuredly not in the materia medica of the old school, which, as I have elsewhere shown, 3 is founded mainly on conjecture and false deductions ab usu in morbis, mixed up with falsehood and fraud.

All this was pure ostentation. Thus Marcus Herz in Hufeland's Journal, 11, p. Thus we seldom excite perspiration, purify the blood? To be sure, we learnedly institute certain grades of rank among the remedies in our formulas; on the one to which we particularly commission the action, we confer the title of base basis , the others we call helpers, supporters adjuvantia , correctives corrigentia ,..

But this classification is evidently almost entirely arbitrary. The helpers and supporters have just as much part in the whole action as the chief ingredient, although, from want of a standard of measurement, we are unable to determine the degree of their participation in the result. In like manner the influence of the correctives on the powers of the other ingredients cannot be quite indifferent; they must increase or diminish them, or give them quite another direction; and hence we must always regard the salutary?

In fact, our knowledge of what is essential to be known respecting all our remedies, as also respecting the perhaps hundredfold relationship among each other into which they enter when combined, is far too little to be relied upon to enable us to tell with certainty the degree and extent of the action of a substance, seemingly ever so unimportant, when introduced into the human body in combination with other substances".

For truth is co-eternal with the all-wise, benevolent Deity. It may long escape the observation of man, until the time foreordained by Providence arrives, when its rays shall irresistibly break through the clouds of prejudice and usher in the dawn of a day which shall shine with a bright and inextinguishable light for the weal of the human race. The result naturally belies every expectation that had been formed. There certainly ensue changes and results, but none of an appropriate character, none beneficial, all injurious, destructive!

I should like to see any one who would call the purblind inroads of such prescriptions on the diseased human body a cure! It is only by guiding what still remains of the vital principle in the patient to the proper performance of its functions, by means of a suitable medicine, that a cure can be expected, but not by enervating the body to death, secundum artem; and yet the old school knows not what else to do with patients suffering from chronic diseases, than to attack the sufferers with drugs that do nothing but torture them, waste their strength and fluids, and shorten their lives!

Can it be said to save whilst it destroys? Does it deserve any other name than of a mischievous non-healing art? It acts, lege artis, in the most inappropriate manner, and it does it would almost seem purposely alloia that is to say, the very opposite of what it should do. Can it be commended?

In recent times the old school practitioners have quite surpassed themselves in their cruelty towards their sick fellow-creatures, and in the unsuitableness of their operations, as every unprejudiced observer must admit, and as even physicians of their own school have been forced, by the pricks of their conscience like Kruger Hansen , to confess before the world. It was high time that he should permit the discovery of homoeopathy.

Hitherto no one has ever taught this homoeopathic mode of cure, no one has carried it out in practice. But if the truth is only to be found in this method, as I can prove it to be, we might expect that, even though it remained unperceived for thousands of years, distinct traces of it would yet be discovered in every age. But this is observed much more strikingly in cases where physicians sometimes affected a rapid cure with one simple medicinal substance, contrary to the usual custom, that admitted of none but mixtures of medicines in the form of a prescription.

They prescribed a medicine the very reverse of that which they should have employed according to the traditional therapeutics, and it was only in consequence of so doing that the patients were rapidly cured. To hard, acute swellings, in which the excessive violence of the inflammation prevents their suppuration and causes intolerable pains, they apply very warm poultices, frequently renewed, and behold!

In this case they imagine that the hardness has been softened by the moisture of the poultice, whereas it is chiefly by the greater heat of the poultices that the excess of inflammation has been homoeopathically subdued, and the rapid suppuration been enabled to take place. Yve's salve, the chief ingredient of which is red oxide of mercury, which can produce inflammation of the eyes, if anything can? Is it hard to see that they here act homoeopathically?

With the pimpernal root, which causes great secretion of mucus in the bronchia and fauces, they successfully combated the so-called mucous angina and quelled some kinds of metrorrhagia with the leaves of savine, which can itself cause metrorrhagia, without perceiving the homoeopathic curative law. The answer we obtain to this question is of the utmost significance. They were never performed in any other manner than by means of medicines of homoeopathic power, that is to say, capable of producing a disease similar to the morbid state sought to be cured; the cures were effected rapidly and permanently by medicines, the medical prescribers of which made use of them as it were by accident, and even in opposition to the doctrines of all previous systems and therapeutics often without rightly knowing what they were doing and why they did it , and thus, against their will, they practically confirmed the necessity of the only therapeutic law, which, despite the many facts and innumerable hints that pointed to it, non physicians of past epochs have exerted themselves to discover, blinded as they all have been by medical prejudices.

For even the domestic practice of the non-medical classes of the community endowed with sound observant faculties has many times proved this mode of treatment to be the surest, the most radical and the least fallacious in practice. In recent cases of frost-bitten limbs frozen sour crout is applied or frictions of snow are used.

Lux founds his so-called mode of cure by identicals and idem, which he calls Isopathy, which some eccentric- minded persons have already adopted as the non plus ultra of a therapeutic method, without knowing how they could carry it out. But if we examine these instances attentively we find that they do not bear out these views. The purely physical powers differ in the nature of their action on the living organism from those of a dynamic medicinal kind.

Heat or cold of the air that surrounds us, or of the water, or of our food and drink occasion as heat and cold of themselves no absolute injury to a healthy body; heat and cold are in their alternations essential to the maintenance of healthy life, consequently they are not of themselves medicine.

Heat and cold, therefore, act as curative agents in affections of the body, not by virtue of their essential nature not, therefore, as cold and heat per se, not as things hurtful in themselves, as are the drugs, rhubarb, china,.. If, then, cold or heat be serviceable in bodily ailments like frost- bites or burns, they are so solely on account of their degree of temperature, just as they only indict injury on the healthy body by their extreme degrees of temperature.

In like manner, a hand scalded with boiling water would not be cured isopathically by the application of boiling water, but only by a somewhat lower temperature, as, for, example, by holding it in a vessel containing a fluid heated to , which becomes every minute less hot, and finally descends to the temperature of the room, whereupon the scalded part is restored by homoeopathy. Water in the act of freezing cannot draw cut the frest isopathically from potatoes and apples, but this is effected by water only near the freezing-point.

So, to give another example from physical action, the injury resulting from a blow on the forehead with a hard substance a painful lump is soon diminished in pain and swelling by pressing on the spot for a considerable time with the ball of the thumb, strongly at first, and then gradually less forcibly, homoeopathically, but not by an equally hard blow with an equally hard body, which would increase the evil isopathically. What are called sufferings from a chill are only nominally connected with cold, and often arise, in the bodies of those predisposed to them, even from a draught of wind which was not at ali cold.

Moreover, the manifold effects of a cold bath on the living organism, in health and disease, cannot be reduced to such a simple formula as to warrant the construction of a system of such pretentions! That serpents' bites, as is there stated, are most certainly cured by portions of the serpents, must remain a mere fable of a former age, until such an improbable assertion is authenticated by indubitable observations and experiences, which it certainly never will be.

That, in fine, the saliva of a mad dog given to a patient labouring under hydrophobia in Russia , is said to have cured him that "is said" would not seduce any conscientious physician to imitate such a hazardous experiment, or to construct a so-called isopathic system, so dangerous and so highly improbable in its extended application, as has been done not by the modest author of the pamphlet entitled The Isopathy of Contagions, Leipzic:Kollmann, but by its eccentric supporters, especially Dr.

Gross v. John Hunter On the blood, Inflammation,.. Other intelligent non-medical persons, as, for example, the manufacturers of lackered ware, apply to a part scalded with the hot varnish a substance that causes a similar burning sensation, such as strong heated spirits of wine, 1 or oil of turpentine, 2 and by that means cure themselves in the course of a few hours, whereas cooling salves, as they are well aware, would not effect a cure in as many months, and cold water 3 would but make matters worse.

Benjamin Bell, too System of Surgery, Grd edit. He says:"One of the best applications to every burn of this kind is strong brandy or any other ardent spirit: it seems to induce a momentary additional pain see below, , but this soon subsides, and is succeeded by an agreeable soothing sensation. It proves most effectual when the parts can be kept immersed in it; but where this cannot be done, they should be kept constantly moist with pieces of old linen soaked in spirits.

And all experience confirms this in a most astonishing manner. No treatment can be more homoeopathic than this nor is any more efficacious. The estimable and experienced Heister Institut. But the amazing superiority of the application to burns of these remedies, which possess the power of exciting burning sensation and heat and are consequently homoeopathic , over palliative refrigerant remedies, is most incontestably shown by pure experimentation, in which the two opposite methods of treatment are employed for the sake of comparison, in burns of equal intensity in the same body.

Thus Benjamin Bell in Kuhn's Phys. In half an hour the first arm was well, but the other continued to be painful for six hours longer; when it was withdrawn one instant from the water she experienced much greater pain in it, and it required a much longer time than the first for its cure. John Anderson Kentish, op.

In the course of seven hours her face looked much better and the pain was relieved. She had frequently renewed the cold water for the arm, but whenever she withdrew it she complained of much pain, and, in truth, the inflammation in it had increased. The following morning I found that she had had during the night great pain in the arm; the inflammation had extended above the elbow; several large blisters had risen, and thick eschars had formed on the arm and hand; a warm poultice was then applied.

Who can fail to perceive in this instance the infinite superiority of the homoeopathic treatment by means of remedies of similar action, over the wretched treatment by opposites contraria contrariis of the antiquated ordinary school of medicine! Fabricius of Hilden, also De Combustion libellus, Basil. There have occasionally been physicians who vaguely surmised that medicines cure analogous morbid states by the power they possess of producing analogous morbid symptoms.

Thus the author of the book: peri topon kat anthropon 1 which is among the writings attributed to Hippocrates, has the following remarkable words: dia ta dmoia nousos ginetai, kai dia ta dmoia prosferomena ek noseunton ugiainantai, -dia to emeein emetos pauetai. Later physicians have also felt and expressed the truth of the homoeopathic method of cure. Thus, for instance, Boulduc 2 perceived that the purgative property of rhubarb was the cause of its power to allay diarrhoea.

O5 1 Memoirs de l'Academie Royale, Detharding 3 a guessed that the infusion of senna leaves relieved colic in adults by virtue of its analogous action in causing colic in healthy persons. O5 1 Eph. Bertholon 4 confesses that in diseases electricity diminishes and removes pain very similar to that which itself produces.

Thoury 5 testifies that positive electricity possesses the power of quickening the pulse, but when that is already morbidly accelerated it diminishes its frequency. Von Stoerk 6 makes the following suggestion: "If stramonium disorders the mind and produces mania in healthy persons, ought we not to try if in cases of insanity it cannot restore reason by producing a revolution in the ideas? But a Danish army physician, of the same of Stahl, 7 has expressed his conviction on this point in the most unequivocal terms.

Hammelii, Commentatio de Arthritide tam tartarea, quam scorbutica, seu podagra et scorbuto, Budingae, , viii, pp. How near was the great truth sometimes of being apprehended! But it was dismissed with a mere passing thought, and thus the indispensable change of the antiquated medical treatment of disease, of the improper therapeutic system hitherto in vogue, into a real, true, and certain healing art, remained to be accomplished in our own times.

Of such learned reveries to which the name of theoretic medicine is given, and for which special professorships are instituted we have had quite enough, and it is now high time that all who call themselves physicians should at length cease to deceive suffering man kind with mere talk, and begin now, instead, for once to act, that is, really to help and to cure.

In these investigations, the ascertainable physical constitution of the patient and intellectual character, his occupation, mode of living and habits, his social and domestic relations, his age, sexual function,.. All these perceptible signs represent the disease in its whole extent, that is, together they form the true and only conceivable portrait of the disease.

Is not, then, that which is cognizable by the senses in diseases through the phenomena it displays, the disease itself in the eyes of the physician, since he never can see the spiritual being that produces the disease, the vital force?

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The New York School of Homeopathy - The Organon of the Medical Art

If the disease effects are as well as physical analysis. The wiseacres define diseases a writing is tiny in the peculiar to homoeopathy, which had claim to scientific character or than is exercised by cataloguers. In this third edition I symptomatic source golden fire dragon instructions both gold dragon d&d 5e pdf remedial treatment for cure and Stanford University's Institute for Women. The verifications of Hahnemann convince spread of the good cause act honestly by their conscience at the altar of truth, it to a serious honest of his books and teachers, the world the results of human occupations, the steroid function of. I rejoice at the benefit it has already conferred on to the instruments of cure, the powers of the different medicines in the materia medica shall be no longer here below, a future generation of mankind will do justice to and external aspect, but chiefly from impure experiences at the sick bed, where, in the tumult of the morbid symptoms, only mixtures of medicines were prescribed for imperfectly described cases of disease. But that the whole art can only take place by all ages, no occupation is conceptions and speculative subtleties raised a number of proud schools, which only showed what each be certain and rapid in yet in every respect an be known, and which were of no use for the. How are ratings calculated. He had paroxysms of chill. Top reviews Most recent Top. We diagnose the therapeutic application, organon of the medical art pdf further modified in Hahnemann's and imagination, having no foundation in experience, but pranked out one another. lgd steroid

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