Aristotle's Physics, which emphasized the role of a complex system of causes, form and matter, offered a theoretical rather than experimental picture of the natural world. Medieval Aristotelian philosophers, collectively known as the scholastics, sought to interpret and update Aristotle's system. However, absolute consensus around Aristotle c Bacon's most immediate philosophical context is that of Aristotelian philosophy, which was still one of the prevalent intellectual currents of Bacon's day.
However, absolute consensus around Aristotle clearly did not exist, even in the universities. When Bacon was at Cambridge, attacks on Aristotle's logic by the French thinker Ramus were being debated. Recent scholarship emphasizes the wide range of opinions that can be classed as "Aristotelian.
This reaction was indeed a severe one; Bacon's key aim throughout The New Organon was to replace what he believed to be Aristotle's universal truths with the idea that truth had to be discovered. Bacon's involvement with contemporary experimental philosophy is also important. From comments in The New Organon itself, and from his letters, we know that Bacon took a keen interest in scientific developments and discoveries, despite his criticism of purely "empirical" philosophy.
His discussions of Galileo's theory of tides, Gilbert's concept of magnetism, and of the use of the recently-developed microscope, show a philosopher in touch with contemporary developments. Bacon also performed and directed his own experiments, some of which were more successful than the chicken-freezing enterprise that hastened his demise. The modern view of Bacon emphasizes the role of scientific practice in his work, and his links to contemporary experimenters.
The immediate reception of The New Organon was varied. James I famously claimed not to understand a word of the book, and the scientist William Harvey accused him of writing philosophy "like a Lord Chancellor"; that is, of arguing in a manipulative, political way. On a similarly negative note, John Chamberlain agreed with the judgment that "a fool could not have written such a work, and a wise man would not. He was adopted by them as a kind of philosophical patron saint, and figures like Robert Hooke tried to model their own investigations on Baconian lines.
Bacon's later influence is debatable. Certainly, the modern "scientific method" bears no resemblance to Bacon's inductive method. On these grounds, his project can be judged to have failed. But although no modern scientist uses inductive methods, Bacon is still credited with influencing the development of modern science. His philosophical reputation was greatest in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but has declined ever since.
Many later historians agreed that his criticism of Aristotle, and his emphasis on experiments and practice were important steps, but these historians also argued that the concept of induction was outdated and represented a false step in the development of the modern scientific method.
The most recent Bacon scholarship is less judgmental, and emphasizes Bacon's historical and theoretical contexts. Most informed historians agree that criticizing Bacon because his method did not survive the test of time, or because of his "moral failings" is a mistake. The nineteenth century's obsession with vindicating Bacon of political corruption at the expense of studying his philosophy has disappeared.
Whether Bacon would have welcomed this development is unclear. Bacon begins with explanation and self-justification. He explains the genesis of his work by his own realization that the intellectual errors of the past need to be swept away. He writes in the first person, and identifies himself with his project absolutely. In a sense, he stakes his own reputation on it. In the preface, Bacon argues that he saw "every other ambition as lower than the work in hand.
Although he devoted a great deal of time to political business, at heart he believed that he made his greatest contribution to human life as a philosopher. The dedication to King James I of England is an attempt to flatter James and gain personal advancement. James's intellectual interests he wrote books on witchcraft, theology and tobacco were well known, and he saw himself as a model of a scholar-prince. Bacon attempts to gain personal advancement always a major concern , but also patronage for his great scientific project.
The work, which was involved in his scheme to "renew" the sciences, would have been vastly expensive, and certainly beyond the means of the permanently indebted Bacon. In this preface and in letters written to James at the time, Bacon imagines prince and philosopher collaborating on this project, with James suggesting useful revisions.
The King admitted, however, that Bacon's "last book, like the peace of God, passeth all understanding. The remainder of the section is essentially an outline of Bacon's broader project. It represents the beginning of his fierce polemic against authority and traditional learning.
Bacon was not the first writer to break with the "ancients," or classical Greek and Roman authors, but it is important to recognize how radical his suggestions were. Most of the European education system from the Middle Ages through the Renaissance was built on a foundation of classical texts. For a long time, the writings of Aristotle were the key source of knowledge about the natural world.
The idea that the best way to study nature was by experiments and experience was not self-evident and had to be invented. A great deal of scholarship in the arts and sciences consisted of commentaries on classical texts. Considerable effort was expended in trying to reconcile ancient wisdom with modern experience. The concept of authority is central to this deferential treatment of the past. Authors who were particularly famous or celebrated were given a high intellectual status.
They had a power beyond the force of their arguments. Their teaching was accepted as true on little external evidence. For many writers, citing authority was enough to clinch an argument. The fact that Aristotle believed that some people were "slaves by nature" could be an argument for the oppression of indigenous peoples, for instance. Various texts had the kind of authority that the Bible retains for some people today.
The establishment of this authority was not simple, however. It was a gradual process with many arguments. The force of Bacon's attack should not blind us to the fact that considerable scholarly effort went into erecting the apparatus of authority.
Bacon seeks to destroy this apparatus completely. He makes it clear that he does not want to argue with the ancients about nature and science, but rather to ignore them altogether and start afresh. He calls for a completely clean slate, as far as such a thing is possible. This call for renewal in a way exempts Bacon from immediate criticism, as he cleverly makes clear. Other philosophers cannot criticize him using the principles of the old system, he argues, because he does not recognize them.
Instead, they should read his new work carefully, and work within his new method. This is a clever, but not necessarily convincing, argument intended to diffuse criticism. Critics could of course argue that they judged his system from some universal viewpoint, or that his system is no more valid than theirs.
Bacon calls his work "natural philosophy" to emphasize the role that the practical study of nature has in it, but his project is only similar to, not identical with, modern "science. This argument may seem strange to modern readers, who are used to the idea of a conflict between science and religion. To Bacon and his contemporaries, there is no contradiction between the idea that God created the world, and the use of scientific methods to investigate the world.
Indeed, the prerequisite of a good philosophical method for investigating nature is that it does not challenge the existence of God. One could argue that Bacon is merely covering up his true position, but this misses the point. To most seventeenth century thinkers, a "scientific" method was a way of investigating God's creation. Bacon's plan of the "Great Renewal" is a clear statement of his aims for the project.
Apart from The New Organon itself, however, little of the whole enterprise was completed. The third section of the renewal was perhaps the most ambitious; it was intended as a huge data-bank of information about the natural world. It would require a huge effort to complete, but would allow the investigator to base his induction on firm foundations. It is for this project that Bacon hopes to gain royal patronage. The fourth section is vaguely described, but appears to be a series of examples of the inductive method giving partial explanations of natural phenomena.
These preliminary explanations and systems would be replaced by the kind of total explanation of the natural world that Bacon imagines in the sixth section. The fifth section is intended as a kind of lure for wealthy investors who need to turn a quick profit. In order to encourage investment in his wider project, Bacon aims to reveal discoveries with immediate practical and commercial value to reward potential backers.
He is clear that his grand philosophical system needs financial backing, and that it must be "marketed" in a skillful way if it is to succeed. Perhaps the key message of this section is that The New Organon is very much a work in progress. It forms part of a broader project that was never completed, and is itself fragmentary.
Apr 13, Cihan Deniz rated it really liked it. I would enjoy reading this book just because of its value in the history of philosophy and science. It feels like witnessing the birth of science. Introduction does its job and clearly sets your expectation to a right place, good to have that!
This is because it explains the motivation and reasoning behind this text. I think that is more valuable for today's readers. Second book was about the method itself, which failed to attract my attention probably I would enjoy reading this book just because of its value in the history of philosophy and science.
Second book was about the method itself, which failed to attract my attention probably because its old, but most probably I prefer visuals over text when it comes to understanding methodologies, experiments and such. It is not, however, fair to say that one MUST read this to have a deeper understanding of modern science, you can read a book about scientific method and you are good to go. But I have to say it clearly helps you to build an emotional connection to the topic on top of an intellectual one, which, to me, is a better foundation of understanding.
Finally, I believe that the mindset behind this text will help me in my everday life a lot. It'll help me to get rid of the idea of "perfection" and "true" understanding. It'll help me to avoid trying without purpose and learning. It'll help me to be right in the middle. Ok, not "right" in the middle, but around in the middle. See you around. May 15, Matt Person added it. All easy to read 17th century works are philosophical works concerning science.
Therefore, some philosophical works concerning science are easy to read 17th century works. An existential fallacy - one assumes there are indeed easy to read 17th century works and I'm quite sure there are not - and thus the faltering of Aristotelian syllogism and the need for the bridge to our modern day scientific method. Much like the first part of Hobbes's Levaithan, I found myself pretty intrigued with the first All easy to read 17th century works are philosophical works concerning science.
Much like the first part of Hobbes's Levaithan, I found myself pretty intrigued with the first book which pretty much laid the philosophical groundwork for the text. Imagining the revolutionary transition to inductive reasoning was interesting. Certainly highly influential given that Bacon was one the "shoulders of giants" upon which Newton stood.
I remained reasonably engrossed during the categorization of heat into tables. In fact Bacon's explanation of heat being the energy of a system as opposed to the arcane ideas previously held true quite reminded me of the Star Trek TNG episode "Thine Own Self" where an amnesiac data disproves the four fundamental element ideas of the teacher. I pretty much faded away on the prerogative instances though.
Maybe a few interesting hot spots here and there. Sep 17, Helena rated it really liked it. The quest for truth is Bacon's pet peeve. He thinks that the philosophers of his time are either too busy focusing on practical matters or too aloof to connect their favorite theories to systematic collection of observations and experimentations in nature. It is clear and transparent that by shifting the paradigm, Bacon has set the stage for the scientific method that has led, in the past years, to significant progress in sciences and therefore improvements to humanity and its livelihood.
Th The quest for truth is Bacon's pet peeve. There are times when Bacon is crystal clear in his message but at times his writing is convoluted, too abstract and sometimes judgemental. Nevertheless, his call to action, his presentation of a mind shift toward inductive reasoning, has been very valuable to the advancement of knowledge and its applications in all areas of human life. Furthermore, he argues that our bias toward finding the reason for exceptions or odd events while accepting commonalities is the preventing us from real discovery - in order to understand why an earthquake happens one needs to understand first why doesn't an earthquake happen everyday.
Well this book is really important for rennasaince philosophy and it's main question the search for another better method of researching. The new Organon has the same purpose as organon of Aristotle it is tool. In rennasaince the people start asking practical questions more.
How can I live better in a city, how to fight all the diseases etc. Even thought Bacon put the foundations of the great idea it remained in theory only for him, only in natural science physics mostly would induction get in practice. Bacon remains one of my favourite philosophers. Either maligned, ignored, or misrepresented, he is an enigmatic blend of rational and spiritual, practical and idealistic.
His audacious plans for a complete revamp of science and knowledge his "Great Instauration" are often taken as the stimulus for the scientific revolution, though in actual practice most scientists seem to have taken a more ad hoc approach. Philosophically, his main contribution may be said to have been his exploration of the p Bacon remains one of my favourite philosophers. Philosophically, his main contribution may be said to have been his exploration of the practical consequences of the problem of induction.
He had recognised that the contemporary reliance upon Aristotelian deduction from first principles was sterile and frequently mistaken. Before we arrive at the conclusion that "All x's are y", we must amass as much data as possible, and then only gradually inch toward a general conclusion which will necessarily remain conjectural and subject to revision.
But it can be seen that Bacon's "new induction" was not something that had a narrow, scientific application, but one that he envisaged would be applied broadly to all aspects of human knowledge. As his four "idols" reveal - those fallacious tendencies of human thinking that lurk beneath our common assumptions - we can only fully understand the world and our place in it by purging the mind of its prejudices.
Gareth Southwell is a philosopher, writer and illustrator. Jul 17, Daniel Buff rated it really liked it. Bacon's reads are among the finest works ever written. For it is a false assertion that the sense of man is the measure of things. On the contrary, all perceptions as well of the sense as of the mind are according to the measure of the individual and not according to the measure of the universe. And the human understanding is like a false mirror, which, receiving rays irregularly, distorts and disc Bacon's reads are among the finest works ever written.
And the human understanding is like a false mirror, which, receiving rays irregularly, distorts and discolors the nature of things by mingling its own nature with it. A pretty challenging read, especially without all the scientific context. It really requires a close read, as he often uses some unique terminology like "idols. I believe it's important to read skeptic philosophy to make you reexamine things that you shouldn't quickly assume. Nov 06, E. Book I on Bacon's Novum Organon is an enjoyable and insightful discussion of induction and the new science that he proposed to replace Aristotle and Medieval approaches to knowledge.
I particularly liked his discussion of the "idols of the mind. Like all passionate writers, he can be too dismissive of the equally valid other side, but this can easily be dismissed by the discerning reader. Jul 15, Jeremy Egerer rated it it was amazing. I expected this to be a boring book about science and it turned out, at least the first good chunk of it, to be a treatise on human idiocy.
A concept everyone needs to study, because each and every one of us are idiots. Oct 10, Sophie rated it liked it Shelves: nonfiction , essay , shimer. SGB, Jan 07, Alex added it Shelves: philosophy. Read selections for class. Yes, Bacon, I too am disappointed at the lost potential of humankind. May 20, PuriP rated it it was ok. Maybe Bacon's works were revolutionary at the time, but for me this book just felt obscure and pseudoscientific.
I don't recommend it. The "Organon," from the Greek word for "instrument, tool, organ," was Aristotle's collection of works on Logic. Bacon takes inspiration from the ancient Greeks, but proposes a novel tool for increasing knowledge of the world around us, hence the title "New Organon.
Bacon first establishes four The "Organon," from the Greek word for "instrument, tool, organ," was Aristotle's collection of works on Logic. Bacon first establishes four Idols of the Mind. In todays language, these are probably best thought of as biases. The Idols of the Tribe are those idols biases that are inherent of the human species.
Our minds are often led astray by placing trust in our sensory experience. We must admit that both our sensory perception and the reflections of our mind are in relation to ourselves, and not necessarily universally consistent. The Idols of the Den are those idols that derive from individual experience - our personal experiences, education, and disposition in general. Everyone has a singularly different history of their life which may contribute to their perspective. The Idols of the Market are those formed by the intercourse of ideas between men in society.
Language itself is an imperfect mode of communication and words have a tendency to be imperfect mediums of thought. The Idols of the Theatre are those from all previous systems of philosophy and natural investigation, especially dogmatic philosophy which is inimical to critical inspection. Following this, the Bacon proceeds a lengthy discussion on the merits and drawbacks of ancient and medieval philosophy, and an argument that experience and observation tell us more about the world than simply reflections on ancient texts.
What sets Bacon apart from others is his insistence upon induction as a method of forming axioms and confirming knowledge: "In forming axioms, we must invent a different form of induction from that hitherto in use; not only for the proof and discovery of principles as they are called , but also of minor, intermediate, and, in short, every kind of axioms. The induction which proceeds by simple enumeration is puerile, leads to uncertain conclusions, and is exposed to danger from one contradictory instance, deciding generally from too small a number of facts, and those only the most obvious.
But a really useful induction for the discovery and demonstration of the arts and sciences, should separate nature by proper rejections and exclusions, and then conclude for the affirmative, after collecting a sufficient number of negatives … The assistance of induction is to serve us not only in the discovery of axioms, but also in defining our notions.
For interpretation is the true and natural act of the mind, when all obstacles are removed. This example is a lengthy portion of the book, but really helps the reader solidify what is meant in the first half of the text. After using heat as a practical example, Bacon devotes the remainder of the text to enumeration of "prerogative instances", which are considerations of common or exclusive properties between various natures.
In his conclusion, Bacon emphasizes mankind's dominion over nature as a good in itself. Oct 13, Screw Driver rated it it was ok Shelves: dropped. Amazingly boring. In his zeal to challenge the Aristotelian teaching of his youth, Bacon swung to other extreme. Beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do anything. Neither the naked hand nor the understanding left to itself can effect much.
It is by instruments and helps that the work is done, which are as much wanted for the understanding as for the hand. And as the instruments of the hand either give motion or guide it, so the instruments of the mind supply either suggestions for the understanding or cautions.
Human knowledge and human power meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced. Nature to be commanded must be obeyed; and that which in contemplation is as the cause is in operation as the rule.
Toward the effecting of works, all that man can do is to put together or put asunder natural bodies. The rest is done by nature working within. The study of nature with a view to works is engaged in by the mechanic, the mathematician, the physician, the alchemist, and the magician; but by all as things now are with slight endeavor and scanty success. It would be an unsound fancy and self-contradictory to expect that things which have never yet been done can be done except by means which have never yet been tried.
The productions of the mind and hand seem very numerous in books and manufactures. But all this variety lies in an exquisite subtlety and derivations from a few things already known, not in the number of axioms. Moreover, the works already known are due to chance and experiment rather than to sciences; for the sciences we now possess are merely systems for the nice ordering and setting forth of things already invented, not methods of invention or directions for new works.
The cause and root of nearly all evils in the sciences is this — that while we falsely admire and extol the powers of the human mind we neglect to seek for its true helps. The subtlety of nature is greater many times over than the subtlety of the senses and understanding; so that all those specious meditations, speculations, and glosses in which men indulge are quite from the purpose, only there is no one by to observe it. As the sciences which we now have do not help us in finding out new works, so neither does the logic which we now have help us in finding out new sciences.
The logic now in use serves rather to fix and give stability to the errors which have their foundation in commonly received notions than to help the search after truth. So it does more harm than good. The syllogism is not applied to the first principles of sciences, and is applied in vain to intermediate axioms, being no match for the subtlety of nature. It commands assent therefore to the proposition, but does not take hold of the thing.
The syllogism consists of propositions, propositions consist of words, words are symbols of notions. Therefore if the notions themselves which is the root of the matter are confused and overhastily abstracted from the facts, there can be no firmness in the superstructure.
Bacon continued his political ascent, and became a Member of Parliament in After numerous appointments under James I, Bacon admitted to bribery and fell from power. Much of Bacon's fame stems from the belief by some that he was the actual author of the plays of William Shakespeare.
While many critics dismissed that belief, Bacon did write several important works, including a digest of laws, a history of Great Britain, and biographies of the Tudor monarchy, including Henry VII. Bacon was also interested in science and the natural world. His scientific theories are recorded in Novum Organum, published in Bacon's interest in science ultimately led to his death.
After stuffing a fowl with snow to study the effect of cold on the decay of meat, he fell ill, and died of bronchitis on April 9, Lisa Jardine was born in Oxford, England on April 12, She studied mathematics and English at university receiving a MA in the literary theory of translation from the University of Essex and a PhD from the University of Cambridge with a thesis on the scientific genius of Francis Bacon.
She received a Royal Society medal for popularizing science and was appointed CBE in for her contribution and commitment to state education. She died of cancer on October 25, at the age of Cambridge University Press Labirint Ozon.
Thus if the notions themselves and this is the heart of the matter are confused, and recklessly abstracted from things, nothing built on them is sound. The only hope therefore lies in true Induction. In many of his aphorisms, Bacon reiterates the importance of inductive reasoning. Induction, methodologically opposed to deduction, entails beginning with particular cases observed by the senses and then attempting to discover the general axioms from those observations.
In other words, induction presupposes nothing. Deduction, on the other hand, begins with general axioms, or first principles, by which the truth of particular cases is extrapolated. Bacon emphasises the strength of the gradual process that is inherent in induction:. There are and can only be two ways of investigating and discovering truth.
The one rushes up from the sense and particulars to axioms of the highest generality and, from these principles and their indubitable truth, goes on to infer and discover middle axioms; and this is the way in current use. The other way draws axioms from the sense and particulars by climbing steadily and by degrees so that it reaches the ones of highest generality last of all; and this is the true but still untrodden way.
After many similar aphoristic reiterations of these important concepts, Bacon presents his famous Idols. Novum organum , as suggested by its name, is focused just as much on a rejection of received doctrine as it is on a forward-looking progression.
In Bacon's Idols are found his most critical examination of man-made impediments which mislead the mind's objective reasoning. They appear in previous works but were never fully fleshed out until their formulation in Novum organum :. For people falsely claim that human sense is the measure of things, whereas in fact all perceptions of sense and mind are built to the scale of man and not the universe. Bacon includes in this idol the predilection of the human imagination to presuppose otherwise unsubstantiated regularities in nature.
An example might be the common historical astronomical assumption that planets move in perfect circles. These "belong to the particular individual. For everyone has besides vagaries of human nature in general his own special cave or den which scatters and discolours the light of nature. Now this comes either of his own unique and singular nature; or his education and association with others, or the books he reads and the several authorities of those whom he cultivates and admires, or the different impressions as they meet in the soul, be the soul possessed and prejudiced, or steady and settled, or the like; so that the human spirit as it is allotted to particular individuals is evidently a variable thing, all muddled, and so to speak a creature of chance This type of idol stems from the particular life experiences of the individual.
Variable educations can lead the individual to a preference for specific concepts or methods, which then corrupt their subsequent philosophies. Bacon himself gives the example of Aristotle, "who made his natural philosophy a mere slave to his logic". Aphorism These are "derived as if from the mutual agreement and association of the human race, which I call Idols of the Market on account of men's commerce and partnerships. For men associate through conversation, but words are applied according to the capacity of ordinary people.
Therefore shoddy and inept application of words lays siege to the intellect in wondrous ways" Aphorism Bacon considered these "the greatest nuisances of them all" Aphorism Because humans reason through the use of words they are particularly dangerous, because the received definitions of words, which are often falsely derived, can cause confusion. He outlines two subsets of this kind of idol and provides examples Aphorism These idols manifest themselves in the unwise acceptance of certain philosophical dogmas, namely Aristotle's sophistical natural philosophy named specifically in Aphorism 63 which was corrupted by his passion for logic, and Plato's superstitious philosophy, which relied too heavily on theological principles.
After enumerating the shortcomings of the current and past natural philosophies, Bacon can now present his own philosophy and methods. Bacon retains the Aristotelian causes, but redefines them in interesting ways.
While traditionally the final cause was held as most important among the four material, formal, efficient, and final , Bacon claims that it is the least helpful and in some cases actually detrimental to the sciences aph. For Bacon, it is the formal cause which is both the most illusive and most valuable, although each of the causes provides certain practical devices.
By forms and formal causes, Bacon means the universal laws of nature. To these Bacon attaches an almost occult like power:. But he who knows forms grasps the unity of nature beneath the surface of materials which are very unlike. Thus is he able to identify and bring about things that have never been done before, things of the kind which neither the vicissitudes of nature, nor hard experimenting, nor pure accident could ever have actualised, or human thought dreamed of.
And thus from the discovery of the forms flows true speculation and unrestricted operation aphorism 3. In this second book, Bacon offers an example of the process that of what he calls true induction.
In this example, Bacon attempts to grasp the form of heat. The first step he takes is the surveying of all known instances where the nature of heat appears to exist. To this compilation of observational data Bacon gives the name Table of Essence and Presence. The next table, the Table of Absence in Proximity , is essentially the opposite—a compilation of all the instances in which the nature of heat is not present.
Because these are so numerous, Bacon enumerates only the most relevant cases. Lastly, Bacon attempts to categorise the instances of the nature of heat into various degrees of intensity in his Table of Degrees. The aim of this final table is to eliminate certain instances of heat which might be said to be the form of heat, and thus get closer to an approximation of the true form of heat.
Such elimination occurs through comparison. For example, the observation that both a fire and boiling water are instances of heat allows us to exclude light as the true form of heat, because light is present in the case of the fire but not in the case of the boiling water. Through this comparative analysis, Bacon intends to eventually extrapolate the true form of heat, although it is clear that such a goal is only gradually approachable by degrees. Indeed, the hypothesis that is derived from this eliminative induction, which Bacon names The First Vintage , is only the starting point from which additional empirical evidence and experimental analysis can refine our conception of a formal cause.
The "Baconian method" does not end at the First Vintage. Bacon described numerous classes of Instances with Special Powers, cases in which the phenomenon one is attempting to explain is particularly relevant. These instances, of which Bacon describes 27 in Novum Organum , aid and accelerate the process of induction. They are "labour-saving devices or shortcuts intended to accelerate or make more rigorous the search for forms by providing logical reinforcement to induction.
Aside from the First Vintage and the Instances with Special Powers, Bacon enumerates additional "aids to the intellect" which presumably are the next steps in his "method. These additional aids, however, were never explained beyond their initial limited appearance in Novum Organum.
It is likely that Bacon intended them to be included in later parts of Instauratio magna and simply never got to writing about them. As mentioned above, this second book of Novum organum was far from complete and indeed was only a small part of a massive, also unfinished work, the Instauratio magna.
Both thinkers were, in a sense, some of the first to question the philosophical authority of the ancient Greeks. Bacon and Descartes both believed that a critique of preexisting natural philosophy was necessary, but their respective critiques proposed radically different approaches to natural philosophy. Two over-lapping movements developed; "one was rational and theoretical in approach and was headed by Rene Descartes; the other was practical and empirical and was led by Francis Bacon.